Klik på linket nedenfor, tryk derefter Ctrl + C eller højreklik for at kopiere det.
Nedenfor kan du finde abstracts fra de nyeste artikler indenfor udvalgte internationale tidsskrifter med infektionsmedicinsk relevans. Du kan under "Yderligere søgekriterier" vælge tidsskrifter, hvor langt tilbage i tiden og rækkefølge.
Vælg eventuelt et eller flere søgeord til at afgrænse søgningen. Match, hvis mindst 1 ord er fundet. Benyt semikolon mellem hvert ord.
Vælg et eller flere tidsskrifter fra listen.
Alle | Ingen
Vælg hvor mange dage tilbage i tiden, der skal vælges artikler fra.
Vælg, hvordan resultaterne skal sorteres.
30 ud af 30 tidsskrifter valgt, søgeord (hepatitis c) valgt, emner højest 180 dage gamle, sorteret efter nyeste først. Opdateret for 2 timer siden.100 emner vises.
Marianna Aragri, Martina Milana, Velia Chiara Di Maio, Ilaria Lenci, Luca Carioti, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Mario Angelico, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein
The development of direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has profoundly changed the scenario of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, leading to extremely high increase in sustained viral response (SVR) rates, with many studies reporting >90-95% SVR rates (1). Despite this success, genotype (GT) 3 infection has shown lower SVR rates compared to other genotypes, especially in patients with cirrhosis. Failures have been also associated with the detection of resistance associated substitutions (RASs) at baseline, before starting treatment (1-2).
To evaluate nasal carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), as well as the risk factors of MRSA colonization, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in northern Taiwan.
From September 2014 to November 2015, HIV-infected patients seeking outpatient care at four hospitals were eligible for this study. A nasal specimen was obtained from each subject for the detection of S. aureus and a questionnaire was completed by each subject. MRSA isolates once identified were characterized.
Of 553 patients surveyed, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was detected in 119 subjects (21.5%) and MRSA in 19 subjects (3.4%). Female gender, injection drug use, smoking, hepatitis C virus carrier, cancer and antibiotic use within 1 year were positively associated with MRSA colonization. By multivariate analysis, only cancer (adjust odds ratio (aOR) 7.78, [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.909–31.731]) and antibiotic use within 1 year (aOR 3.89, [95% CI, 1.219–12.433]) were significantly associated with MRSA colonization. Ten isolates were characterized as sequence type (ST) 59/staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) IV or VT, endemic community strains in Taiwan, four isolates as ST 8/SCCmec IV (USA 300) and one isolate as ST 239/SCCmec IIIA, a hospital strain. All the community-associated MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX).
Nasal MRSA carriage in HIV-infected patients seeking outpatient care was low (3.4%) in northern Taiwan. Most of the colonizing isolates were genetically endemic community strains and exhibited high susceptibility to TMP-SMX and fluoroquinolones. Cancer and antibiotic use within 1 year were associated with MRSA colonization.
Garvey L, , Cooke G, et al.
AbstractBackgroundModeling of the London hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic in men who have sex with men (MSM) and are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) suggested that early access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment may reduce incidence. With high rates of linkage to care, microelimination of HCV within MSM living with HIV may be realistic ahead of 2030 World Health Organization targets. We examined trends in HCV incidence in the pre- and post-DAA eras for MSM living with HIV in London and Brighton, United Kingdom.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was conducted at 5 HIV clinics in London and Brighton between 2013 and 2018. Each site reported all acute HCV episodes during the study period. Treatment timing data were collected. Incidence rates and reinfection proportion were calculated.ResultsA total of378 acute HCV infections were identified, comprising 292 first infections and 86 reinfections. Incidence rates of acute HCV in MSM living with HIV peaked at 14.57/1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.95–18.20) in 2015. Rates fell to 4.63/1000 PYFU (95% CI, 2.60 to 6.67) by 2018. Time from diagnosis to starting treatment declined from 29.8 (2013) to 3.7 months (2018).ConclusionsWe observed a 78% reduction in the incidence of first HCV episode and a 68% reduction in overall HCV incidence since the epidemic peak in 2015, which coincides with wider access to DAAs in England. Further interventions to reduce transmission, including earlier access to treatment and for reinfection, are likely needed for microelimination to be achieved in this population.
Balagopal A, Smeaton L, Quinn J, et al.
AbstractDirect-acting antivirals (DAA) targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) have revolutionized outcomes in HIV co-infection. We examined early events in liver and plasma through A5335S, a substudy of trial A5329 (paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir, with ribavirin) that enrolled chronic genotype 1a HCV-infected persons co-infected with suppressed HIV: 5/6 treatment-naïve enrollees completed A5335S. Mean baseline plasma HCV RNA=6.7 log10 IU/mL and changed by -4.1 log10 IU/mL by Day 7. In liver, laser capture microdissection was used to quantify HCV. At liver biopsy 1, mean (95% CI) %HCV-infected cells=25.2% (7.4%, 42.9%), correlating with plasma HCV RNA (Spearman rank correlation r=0.9); biopsy 2 (Day 7 in 4/5 participants) mean (95% CI) %HCV-infected cells=1.0% (0.2%, 1.7%)(p
Yin S, Barker L, Ly K, et al.
AbstractBackgroundDespite national immunization efforts, including universal childhood hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination recommendations in 2006, hepatitis A virus (HAV)-associated outbreaks have increased in the United States. Unvaccinated or previously uninfected persons are susceptible to HAV infection, yet the susceptibility in the U.S. population is not well known.MethodsUsing National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2016 data, we estimated HAV susceptibility prevalence (total HAV antibody negative) among persons aged ≥2 years. Among U.S.-born adults aged ≥20 years, we examined prevalence, predictors, and age-adjusted trends of HAV susceptibility by sociodemographic characteristics. We assessed HAV susceptibility and self-reported non-vaccination to HepA among risk groups and the “immunization cohort” (those born in or after 2004).ResultsAmong U.S.-born adults aged ≥20 years, HAV susceptibility prevalence was 74.1% (95% CI: 72.9–75.3%) during 2007–2016. Predictors of HAV susceptibility were age group 30–49 years, non-Hispanic white/black, 130% above the poverty level, and no health insurance. Prevalences of HAV susceptibility and non-vaccination to HepA, respectively, were 72.9% and 73.1% among persons who reported injection drug use, 67.5% and 65.2% among men who had sex with men, 55.2% and 75.1% among persons with hepatitis B or hepatitis C, and 22.6% and 25.9% among the immunization cohort. Susceptibility and non-vaccination decreased over time among the immunization cohort, but remained stable among risk groups.ConclusionDuring 2007–2016, approximately three-fourths of U.S.-born adults remained HAV susceptible. Enhanced vaccination efforts are critically needed, particularly targeting adults at highest risk for HAV infection, to mitigate the current outbreaks.
Anemia is common among people living with HIV infection (PLWH) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Information on risk factors for anemia incidence in the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) era is lacking.
Within a prospective clinical cohort of adult PLWH receiving care at eight sites across the United States between 1/2010–3/2018, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted among a) PLWH free of anemia at baseline and b) PLWH free of severe anemia at baseline to determine associations between time-updated patient characteristics and development of anemia (hemoglobin
Eva Bobadilla Pérez,
Juan Carlos Yáñez‐Rubal,
Ana Isabel Sanclaudio‐Luhia,
Journal of Medical Virology, Accepted Article.
Ruiz, I., Nevers, Q., Hernandez, E., Ahnou, N., Brillet, R., Softic, L., Donati, F., Berry, F., Hamadat, S., Fourati, S., Pawlotsky, J.-M., Ahmed-Belkacem, A.
The quinoline MK-571 is the most commonly used inhibitor of multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1) but was originally developed as a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist. While studying the modulatory effect of MRP-1 on anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct acting-antivirals (DAA) efficiency, we observed an unexpected anti-HCV effect of compound MK-571 alone. This anti-HCV activity was characterized in Huh7.5 cells stably harboring a subgenomic genotype 1b replicon. A dose-dependent decrease of HCV RNA levels was observed upon MK-571 administration, with an EC50 of 9±0.3 μM and a maximum HCV RNA level reduction of approximatively 1 Log10. MK-571 also reduced the replication of the HCV full-length J6/JFH1 model in a dose-dependent manner. However, probenecid and apigenin homodimer (APN), two specific inhibitors of MRP-1, had no effect on HCV replication. In contrast, the CysLTR1 antagonists SR2640 increased HCV-SGR RNA levels in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum increase of 10-fold. In addition, a combination of natural CysLTR1 agonist (LTD4) or antagonists (zafirlukast, cinalukast, and SR2640) with MK-571 completely reversed its antiviral effect, suggesting its anti-HCV activity is related to CysLTR1 rather to MRP-1 inhibition. In conclusion, we showed that MK-571 inhibits HCV replication in hepatoma cell cultures by acting as a CysLTR1 receptor antagonist, thus unraveling a new host-virus interaction in the HCV life cycle.
hepatitis C infectionopioid use disorderinjection drug usereinfection
Cunningham E, , Hajarizadeh B, et al.
AbstractBackgroundThe aim of this analysis was to calculate the incidence of HCV reinfection and associated factors among two clinical trials of HCV DAA treatment in people with recent injecting drug use or currently receiving OAT.MethodsParticipants who achieved an end-of-treatment response in two clinical trials of people with recent injecting drug use or currently receiving OAT (SIMPLIFY and D3FEAT) enrolled between March 2016 and February 2017 in eight countries were assessed for HCV reinfection, confirmed by viral sequencing. Incidence was calculated using person-time of observation and associated factors were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsSeventy-three percent of the population at risk for reinfection (n=177; median age 48 years, 73% male) reported ongoing injecting drug use. Total follow-up time at risk was 254 person-years (median 1.8 years, range 0.2-2.8). Eight cases of reinfection were confirmed for an incidence of 3.1/100 person-years (95% CI 1.6-6.3) overall and 17.9/100 person-years (95% CI 5.8-55.6) among those who reported sharing needles/syringes. Younger age and needle/syringe sharing were associated with HCV reinfection.ConclusionsThese data demonstrate the need for ongoing monitoring and improved strategies to prevent HCV reinfection following successful treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use to achieve HCV elimination.
Bach P, Ti L.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health problem. WHO guidelines recommend screening all people living with HIV for hepatitis C. Considering the limited resources for health in low and middle income countries, targeted HCV screening is potentially a more feasible screening strategy for many HIV cohorts. Hence there is an interest in developing clinician-friendly tools for selecting subgroups of HIV patients for whom HCV testing should be prioritized. Several statistical methods have been developed to predict a binary outcome. Multiple studies have compared the performance of different predictive models, but results were inconsistent.
A cross-sectional HCV diagnostic study was conducted in the HIV cohort of Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We compared the performance of logistic regression, Spiegelhalter-Knill-Jones and CART to predict Hepatitis C co-infection in this cohort. We estimated the number of HCV co-infections that would be missed. To correct for over-optimism, the leave-one-out bootstrap estimator was used for estimating this quantity.
Logistic regression misses the fewest HCV co-infections (8%), but would still refer 98% of HIV patients for HCV testing. Spiegelhalter-Knill-Jones (SKJ) and CART respectively miss 12% and 29% of HCV co-infections but would only refer about 30% for HCV testing.
In our dataset, logistic regression has the highest log-likelihood and smallest proportions of HCV co-infections missed but Spiegelhalter-Knill-Jones has the highest area under the ROC curve. The likelihood ratios estimated by Spiegelhalter-Knill-Jones might be easier to interpret for clinicians than odds ratios estimated by logistic regression or the decision tree from CART. CART is the most flexible method, and no model has to be specified regarding presence of interactions and form of the relationship between outcome and predictor variables.
, Owens DK, Davidson KW, et al.
This 2020 Recommendation Statement from the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years (B recommendation).
Chou R, Dana T, Fu R, et al.
This systematic review to support the 2020 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement on screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection summarizes published evidence on the benefits and harms of HCV screening and treatment in adolescents and adults.
This JAMA Patient Page describes the recent USPSTF recommendations on screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults.
Graham CS, Trooskin S.
In this issue of JAMA, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued new recommendations for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection screening in the asymptomatic US population. Based on an updated review of the evidence, the task force now “recommends screening for HCV infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years (B recommendation),” regardless of known risk factors. Adolescents who engage in injection drug use or other behaviors associated with acquisition of HCV should also be screened. Screening all adults has been shown to be cost-effective, and a B recommendation means that insurance companies will provide reimbursement for hepatitis C testing without cost-sharing by patients.
Akiyama M, Lipsey D, Ganova-Raeva L, et al.
AbstractBackgroundUnderstanding hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is essential for HCV elimination. We aimed to differentiate reinfections from treatment failures and to identify transmission linkages and associated factors in a cohort of PWID receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT).MethodsWe analyzed baseline and follow-up specimens from 150 PWID from three OAT clinics in the Bronx, NY. NGS data from the hypervariable region 1 of HCV were analyzed using Global Hepatitis Outbreak and Surveillance Technology.ResultsThere were three transmission linkages between study participants. Nine participants did not achieve sustained virologic response (SVR): seven had follow-up specimens with similar sequences to baseline and two passed away. Four additional participants achieved SVR but became viremic at later follow-up: two were reinfected with different strains, one had a late treatment failure, and one was transiently viremic 17 months post-treatment. All transmission linkages were from the same OAT clinic and involved spousal or common-law partnerships.ConclusionThis study highlights the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) as an important tool for identifying viral transmission and to help distinguish relapse and reinfection among PWID. Results reinforce the need for harm reduction interventions among couples and those who report ongoing risk factors following SVR.
Few data are available regarding the use of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C in psychiatric patients. The aim of the study is to assess safety and outcome of DAAs in patients with psychiatric comorbidities.
This retrospective, observational, single-centre study enrolled patients treated with psychiatric drugs who initiated DAAs between 2015 and 2018. Patients were classified into two groups: A (on anxiolitycs/antidepressant) and B (on antipsychotics). Week-12 sustained virological response (SVR-12) and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated.
One hundred forty-four patients were included (A:101; B:43). Patients were 49.3% males, mean age 60 years (SD ± 13.5); 31.9% cirrhotic; 125 (86.8%) HCV-monoinfected and 19 (13.2%) HCV /HIV-coinfected. Twenty patients (13.8%) required a change of psychiatric therapy before initiation of DAA. Overall, SVR-12 was achieved in 88.2% of subjects in intention-to-treat(ITT)-analysis. Lower SVR rates were observed in group B vs A (79% vs 92%, p = 0.045) and in those changing psychiatric drugs vs others (8% vs 30%, p = 0.015). According to per-protocol (PP)-analysis, SVR-12 was achieved in 93/95 (97.9%) in group A versus 34/36 (94.4%) in group B (p = 0.30). At least one AE occurred in 60 patients (41.6%), including 10 severe AEs, leading to 3 discontinuations. AEs were more frequently reported in group A (p = 0.015).
The study confirms effectiveness and safety of DAA-based treatment also in this special population, even if a careful evaluation of history and drug-drug interactions is warranted.
Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
Mojca Maticic, Mario U. Mondelli
Globally, viral hepatitis remains a major public health problem that presents a multistakeholder challenge and calls for an urgent response. As the seventh leading cause of mortality worldwide it has already surpassed all other chronic infectious diseases including HIV, tuberculosis and malaria, with 96% of deaths being attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections . In Europe, around 15 million people are living with HBV and an additional 14 million are living with HCV causing 56,000 and 112,500 deaths, respectively.
Hepatitis C virus is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease and liver-related deaths worldwide. The estimated prevalence of chronic hepatitis C viral infection among the general Belgian population was 0.57% (n = 64,000) in 2015. Although Belgium has had a ‘Hepatitis C Plan’ since 2014, elimination efforts are unclear. This study employs the best available data and modelling estimates to define the burden of hepatitis C viral infection among key subgroups in Belgium, identify information gaps and propose potential approaches to screening, linkage to care and treatment, and cure.
We examined the peer-reviewed and grey literature since 2012 for data on the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection in Belgium in key subgroups identified by national experts and in the literature. Ultimately, this research is primarily based on data provided by the key stakeholders themselves due to a lack of reliable data in the literature. Based on this, we modelled the treatment rates required to reach elimination of hepatitis C in several subgroups.
Eleven potential subgroups were identified. There were no data available for two subgroups: generational cohorts and men who have sex with men. In six subgroups, fewer than 3000 people were reported or estimated to have hepatitis C infection. Migrants and people who inject drugs were the most affected subgroups, and children were the least affected subgroup. Only two subgroups are on target to achieve elimination by 2030: patients living with haemophilia and transplant recipients.
Removing Belgian treatment reimbursement restrictions in January 2019 was a big step towards eliminating HCV. In addition, increasing surveillance, including with a national registry, treatment prescription by other health-care providers and availability of treatment in local pharmacies are central to improving the current situation and getting on track to reach the 2030 WHO hepatitis C elimination targets in Belgium.
Worldwide, there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the seroprevalence of undiagnosed chronic viral infections including HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among patients with severe psychiatric disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore and compare undiagnosed seroprevalence rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV infections among patients with severe psychiatric disorders.
In this study, we included a random sample of 309 patients with severe psychiatric disorders selected by systematic sampling technique. We used a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to confirm the diagnosis of severe psychiatric disorders among the participants. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for the potential confounding factors was used to explore the potential determinants of chronic viral infections.
The prevalence estimates of HIV infection among patients with severe psychiatric disorders in this study (3.24%) was roughly 3 times the estimated population prevalence of HIV infection in Ethiopia (1.1%). This study showed that the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV infections among patients with severe psychiatric disorders were 4.85 and 1.29%, respectively. Our results also showed that among patients with chronic viral infections, HIV, HBV and HCV, 76.92, 60, 80, and 75% respectively were undiagnosed. Regarding associated factors, the presence of chronic viral infection was found to be significantly associated with the age of the participants (ranging between 30 and 40 years) after adjusting for the possible confounding factors [AOR = 3.95 (95%CI.18–13.17)].
Even though the prevalence estimates of HIV (3.24%), HBV (4.85%), and HCV (1.29%) infections were high among patients with severe psychiatric disorders, the majority of them remained undiagnosed. HBV was found to be the commonly undiagnosed infection (4 out of 5) followed by HCV (3 out of 4) and HIV (6 out of 10). The present study provided evidence of a significant association between the age of the participant (between 30 and 40 years) and chronic viral infections in patients with severe psychiatric disorders. Increasing the awareness of psychiatry professionals and early screening, as well as interventions of chronic viral infections among patients with severe psychiatric disorders are imperative.
Nguyen, M. H., Wong, G., Gane, E., Kao, J.-H., Dusheiko, G.
Currently, despite the use of a preventive vaccine for several decades as well as the use of effective and well-tolerated viral suppressive medications since 1998, approximately 250 million people remain infected with the virus that causes hepatitis B worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the leading causes of liver cancer and overall mortality globally, surpassing malaria and tuberculosis. Linkage to care is estimated to be very poor both in developing countries and in high-income countries, such as the United States, countries in Western Europe, and Japan. In the United States, by CDC estimates, only one-third of HBV-infected patients or less are aware of their infection. Some reasons for these low rates of surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment include the asymptomatic nature of chronic hepatitis B until the very late stages, a lack of curative therapy with a finite treatment duration, a complex natural history, and a lack of knowledge about the disease by both care providers and patients. In the last 5 years, more attention has been focused on the important topics of HBV screening, diagnosis of HBV infection, and appropriate linkage to care. There have also been rapid clinical developments toward a functional cure of HBV infection, with novel compounds currently being in various phases of progress. Despite this knowledge, many of the professional organizations provide guidelines focused only on specific questions related to the treatment of HBV infection. This focus leaves a gap for care providers on the other HBV-related issues, which include HBV’s epidemiological profile, its natural history, how it interacts with other viral hepatitis diseases, treatments, and the areas that still need to be addressed in order to achieve HBV elimination by 2030. Thus, to fill these gaps and provide a more comprehensive and relevant document to regions worldwide, we have taken a global approach by using the findings of global experts on HBV as well as citing major guidelines and their various approaches to addressing HBV and its disease burden.
Olbrich A, Wardemann H, Böhm S, et al.
In Repertoire and Neutralizing Activity of Antibodies Against Hepatitis C Virus E2 Peptide in Patients With Spontaneous Resolution of Hepatitis C [J Infect Dis, Volume 220, Issue 7, 1 October 2019, Pages 1209–1218, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz274], the affiliations for authors Florian Wrensch, Thomas F. Baumert, and Julia Benckert were incorrect. These have been updated in the article online.
Popping S, , Verwijs R, et al.
AbstractTransmission of direct-acting antiviral(DAA) resistance associated substitutions(RAS) could hamper hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure rates and ultimately jeopardize elimination efforts. A phylogenetic analysis of 87 men-who-have-sex-with-men recently infected with HCV genotype 1a demonstrated that one-third(28/87) belonged to a single large cluster in which 96% harbored the NS5A M28V RAS.
Krassenburg L, Zanjir W, Georgie F, et al.
AbstractBackgroundThe causal link of sustained virological response (SVR) with outcome has been challenged. With markedly improved SVR rates with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), the benefit of SVR would be expected to diminish if the association with outcome is not causal.MethodsData were collected for patients starting treatment with interferon (IFN) or DAAs between June 2006 and December 2016. To control for disease severity, patients were IFN-eligible (IDEAL) based on criteria for the IDEAL peginterferon trial. Clinical events were decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation and all-cause mortality.ResultsIn 1078 IDEAL-eligible patients, 1306 treatments occurred; 52% IFN, 49% DAAs. Cirrhosis was present in 30% DAAs vs. 21% IFN (P
Gregory J. Dore, Marianne Martinello, Maryam Alavi, Jason Grebely
Nature Medicine, Published online: 11 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0706-xThe World Health Organization’s targets for eliminating hepatitis C virus by 2030 have been deemed ambitious by many. However, we believe they are achievable, provided they are supported by global commitment.
Identifying patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and enhancing the cascade of care are essential for eliminating HCV infection. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of positive anti-HCV serology in Brasilia, Brazil, and evaluate the efficiency of the cascade of care for HCV-positive individuals.
This cross-sectional study analyzed 57,697 rapid screening tests for hepatitis C in individuals aged > 40 years between June 2018 and June 2019. HCV-positive patients were contacted and scheduled to undergo the HCV RNA viral test, genotyping, and transient elastography.
The prevalence of positive serology was 0.27%. Among 161 patients with positive anti-HCV serology, 124 (77%) were contacted, 109 (67.7%) were tested for HCV RNA viral load, and 69 (42.8%) had positive results. Genotype 1 (75%) was the most prevalent genotype. Among 65 patients (94.2%) who underwent transient elastography, 30 (46.2%) presented with advanced fibrosis. Additionally, of the 161 patients, 55 (34.1%) were referred for treatment, but only 39 (24.2%) complied, with 36 (22.4%) showing sustained virological response. By the end of the study, 16 patients were still awaiting to receive medication.
The prevalence of HCV-positive patients was low in Brasilia, and the gaps in the cascade of care for these patients were significantly below the targets of HCV infection elimination. This study opens new avenues for eliminating HCV infection and suggests that partnerships with clinical laboratories to conduct anti-HCV tests are a useful strategy to improve HCV diagnosis.
Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Brasília - UNB (CAAE number 77818317.2.0000.0030) and by the Ethics Committee of the Health Science Teaching and Research Foundation - FEPECS/SES/DF (CAAE number 77818317.2.3001.5553).
Lo M, Spengler J, Krumpe L, et al.
AbstractNipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. There is currently no approved therapeutic for human use against NiV infection. Griffithsin (GRFT) is high-mannose oligosaccharide binding lectin that has shown in vivo broad-spectrum activity against viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis C virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antiviral activities of GRFT and its synthetic trimeric tandemer (3mG) against NiV and other viruses from across 4 virus families. The 3mG had comparatively greater potency than GRFT against NiV due to its enhanced ability to block NiV glycoprotein-induced syncytia formation. Our initial in vivo prophylactic evaluation of an oxidation-resistant GRFT (Q-GRFT) showed significant protection against lethal NiV challenge in Syrian golden hamsters. Our results warrant further development of Q-GRFT and 3mG as potential NiV therapeutics.
Ann E Woolley, Lindsey R Baden
Hundreds of patients die annually in the USA while awaiting a thoracic organ transplant.1 An emerging strategy to improve donor organ availability includes transplanting organs from hepatitis C (HCV)-viraemic donors. Many transplant centres are studying approaches to minimise complications from HCV in this setting.
Marcelo Cypel, Jordan J Feld, Marcos Galasso, Rafaela V Pinto Ribeiro, Nikki Marks, Magdalena Kuczynski, Deepali Kumar, Ilona Bahinskaya, Vanderlei S Bagnato, Cristina Kurachi, Arthur S Slutsky, Jonathan C Yeung, Laura Donahoe, Marc de Perrot, Kazuhiro Yasufuku, Andrew Pierre, Matthew Binnie, Cecilia Chaparro, Tereza Martinu, Manyin Chen, Jussi Tikkanen, Chung-Wai Chow, Aman Sidhu, Thomas K Waddell, Shaf Keshavjee, Lianne G Singer, Atul Humar
Early and intermediate clinical outcomes were not significantly different between patients receiving viraemic HCV donor lungs and HCV-negative donor lungs. Donor organ treatment with UVC perfusate irradiation during EVLP significantly decreased HCV viral loads within the first 7 days after transplantation and shows the proof-of-concept for a novel approach of minimising viral load ex vivo before transplantation, with intent of preventing donor–recipient transmission.
Springer S, del Rio C.
Opioid use disorderHepatitis C VirusMedication treatment for Opioid Use disorderbuprenorphineSVR
Rosenthal E, Silk R, Mathur P, et al.
AbstractBackgroundPeople who inject drugs have high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and significant morbidity associated with drug use, however HCV treatment often occurs in absence of interventions to address opioid use disorder (OUD) and drug use related harms. The impact of concurrent initiation of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) on HCV treatment and drug-use outcomes is unknown.MethodsIn this prospective, open-label, observational trial (NCT03221309) at a harm reduction organization drop-in center in Washington, DC, 100 patients with chronic HCV, OUD, and ongoing injection drug-use were treated with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12-weeks and offered buprenorphine initiation. The primary end point was sustained virologic response (SVR), and secondary end points included uptake of and retention in OAT, change in risk behavior, and determinants of SVR.ResultsEighty-two patients (82%) achieved SVR, which was not associated with baseline OAT status (p=0.33), on-treatment drug-use (p=1.00), or imperfect daily adherence (p=0.35), but was significantly associated with completing two or more bottles of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (p=0.0001) and being on OAT at week 24 (p=0.01). Of sixty-seven patients not on baseline OAT, fifty-three (79%) initiated OAT. At week 24, sixty-eight (68%) patients were on OAT. Being on OAT was associated with fewer opiate-positive urine drug screens (p=0.003), lower HIV risk-taking behavior scores (p
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent form of liver cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The major risk factors for HCC development are chronic liver disease and cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), steatohepatitis, intake of aflatoxin-contaminated food, diabetes, and obesity.
In Western countries, the number of NASH-related HCC cases is increasing, that of HBV- or HCV-related cases is declining due to the wide application of HBV universal vaccination and the introduction of effective therapies against HBV and HCV infections, and that of alcohol-related cases remaining substantially unchanged. Nevertheless, the burden of HCC is expected to increase worldwide in the next few decades, due to the population growth and aging expected in coming years. Overall, the abovementioned changes and future variations in lifestyle and in the impact of environmental factors in Western countries and a decreasing exposure to dietary aflatoxins and improved socio-economic conditions in developing countries will create new HCC epidemiology in the next few decades.
A substantial further reduction in cases of HCC requires a wider application of universal HBV vaccination and effective treatment of HBV- and HCV-related chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, more effective campaigns to favor correct dietary habits and reduce alcohol consumption and the intensification of studies on HCC pathogenesis for future optimized prevention strategies.
Bull-Otterson L, Huang Y, Zhu W, et al.
AbstractBackgroundWe assessed prevalence of testing for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID).MethodsUsing a nationwide health insurance database for claims paid during 2010–2017, we identified PWID by using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Current Procedural Terminology, and National Drug Codes directory. We then estimated the percentage of PWIDs tested for HIV or HCV within 1 year of an index encounter, and used multivariate logistic regression models to assess demographic and clinical factors associated with testing.ResultsOf 844 242 PWIDs, 71 938 (8.5%) were tested for HIV and 65 188 (7.7%) for HCV infections. Missed opportunities were independently associated with being male (ORs: HIV, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.49–0.50]; P < .001; HCV, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.65–0.72]; P < .001), rural residence (ORs: HIV, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.65–0.69]; P < .001; HCV, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.73–0.77]), and receiving services for skin infections or endocarditis (aORs: HIV, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.87–0.95]; P
Grebely J, , Catlett B, et al.
AbstractThe Xpert HCV Viral Load Fingerstick assay (Xpert HCV VL FS) is a point-of-care test quantifying HCV RNA in
Adeel A. Butt, Peng Yan, Samia Aslam, Kenneth E. Sherman, Dawd Siraj, Nasia Safdar, Bilal Hameed
Mojca Maticic, Andrea Lombardi, Mario U. Mondelli, Massimo Colombo, ESCMID Study Group for Viral Hepatitis (ESGVH)
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 71 million people worldwide. The availability of highly efficient direct acting antivirals has revolutionized the treatment landscape with over 95% cure rates. World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a global program to achieve rather ambitious HCV elimination targets for 2030.
Clipman S, Duggal P, Srikrishnan A, et al.
AbstractBackgroundData from high-income countries suggest increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence/incidence among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), but limited data derive from low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs).MethodsWe recruited 4,994 MSM from 5 states across India using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression incorporating RDS weights and machine learning feature selection were used to identify correlates of prevalent HCV, and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was used to examine genetic clustering.ResultsMedian age was 25, HIV prevalence was 7.2% and 49.3% reported recent unprotected anal intercourse. HCV prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0 – 1.6%; site range: 0.2 – 3.4%) and was 3.1% in HIV-positive compared to 1.1% among HIV-negative. HCV infection was significantly associated with injection drug use (OR: 177.1; 95% CI: 72.7 – 431.5) and HIV (OR: 4.34; 95% CI: 1.88 – 10.05). Machine learning did not uncover any additional epidemiologic signal. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clusters suggestive of linked transmission; each contained at least one individual reporting injection drug use.ConclusionsWe observed a low HCV prevalence in this large sample of MSM despite high prevalence of known risk factors, reflecting either the need for a threshold of HCV for sexual transmission and/or variability in sexual practices across settings.
Greenberg, Lauren; Ryom, Lene; Wandeler, Gilles; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Öllinger, Angela; Neesgaard, Bastian; Stephan, Christoph; Calmy, Alexandra; Rauch, Andri; Castagna, Antonella; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Johnson, Margaret; Stingone, Christof; Mussini, Cristina; De Wit, Stéphane; Necsoi, Coca; Campins, Antoni A.; Pradier, Christian; Stecher, Melanie; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Monforte, Antonella d’Arminio; Law, Matthew; Puhr, Rainer; Chkhartishvilli, Nikoloz; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Garges, Harmony;
Despite increased INSTI use, limited large-scale, real-life data exists on INSTI uptake and discontinuation.
International multicohort collaboration.
RESPOND participants starting dolutegravir (DTG), elvitegravir (EVG) or raltegravir (RAL) after 1/1/2012 were included. Predictors of INSTI used were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazards models describe time to and factors associated with discontinuation.
Overall, 9702 persons were included; 5051 (52.1%) starting DTG, 1933 (19.9%) EVG, 2718 (28.0%) RAL. The likelihood of starting RAL or EVG versus DTG decreased over time and was higher in Eastern and Southern Europe compared to Western Europe.
At 6 months after initiation, 8.9% (95% CI 8.3%-9.5%) had discontinued the INSTI (6.4% DTG, 7.4% EVG, 14.0% RAL). The main reason for discontinuation was toxicity (44.2% DTG, 42.5% EVG, 17.3% RAL). Nervous system toxicity accounted for a higher proportion of toxicity discontinuations on DTG (31.8% DTG, 23.4% EVG, 6.6% RAL). Overall, treatment simplification was highest on RAL (2.7% DTG, 1.6% EVG, 19.8% RAL).
Factors associated with a higher discontinuation risk included increasing year of INSTI initiation, female gender, hepatitis C coinfection, and prior non-AIDS defining malignancies. Individuals in Southern and Eastern Europe were less likely to discontinue. Similar results were seen for discontinuations after 6 months.
Uptake of DTG versus EVG or RAL increased over time. Discontinuation within 6 months was mainly due to toxicity; nervous system toxicity was highest on DTG. Discontinuation was highest on RAL, mainly due to treatment simplification.
Address for Correspondence: Lauren Greenberg Centre for Clinical Research, Epidemiology, Modelling and Evaluation (CREME) Institute for Global Health, UCL Rowland Hill St, London, NW3 2PF Telephone: 442080168051 Email: email@example.com
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The International Cohort Consortium of Infectious Disease (RESPOND) has received funding from ViiV Healthcare LLC and Gilead Sciences. Additional support has been provided by participating cohorts contributing data in-kind and/or statistical support: Austrian HIV Cohort Study (AHIVCOS), The Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD), CHU Saint-Pierre, University Hospital Cologne, The EuroSIDA cohort, Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study, Georgian National AIDS Health Information System (AIDS HIS), Modena HIV Cohort, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS), Royal Free HIV Cohort Study. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
* The writing committee and RESPOND study group are listed in the Acknowledgments section.
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Georgia has one of the highest HCV prevalence in the world and launched the world’s first national HCV elimination programs in 2015. Georgia set the ambitious target of diagnosing 90% of people living with HCV, treating 95% of those diagnosed and curing 95% of treated patients by 2020. We report outcomes of Sofosbuvir (SOF) based treatment regimens in patients with chronic HCV infection in Georgia.
Patients with cirrhosis, advanced liver fibrosis and severe extrahepatic manifestations were enrolled in the treatment program. Initial treatment consisted of SOF plus ribavirin (RBV) with or without pegylated interferon (INF). Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as undetectable HCV RNA at least 12 weeks after the end of treatment. SVR were calculated using both per-protocol and modified intent-to-treat (mITT) analysis. Results for patients who completed treatment through 31 October 2018 were analyzed.
Of the 7342 patients who initiated treatment with SOF-based regimens, 5079 patients were tested for SVR. Total SVR rate was 82.1% in per-protocol analysis and 74.5% in mITT analysis. The lowest response rate was observed among genotype 1 patients (69.5%), intermediate response rate was achieved in genotype 2 patients (81.4%), while the highest response rate was among genotype 3 patients (91.8%). Overall, SOF/RBV regimens achieved lower response rates than IFN/SOF/RBV regimen (72.1% vs 91.3%, P
Carrero, Ana; Berenguer, Juan; Hontañón, Víctor; Navarro, Jordi; Hernández-Quero, José; Galindo, María J; Quereda, Carmen; Santos, Ignacio; Téllez, María J; Ortega, Enrique; Sanz, José; Medrano, Luz M; Pérez-Latorre, Leire; Bellón, José M; Resino, Salvador; Bermejo, Javier; González-García, Juan; GeSIDA 3603b Study Group
To assess the effects of eradication of HCV on cardiovascular risk and preclinical atherosclerosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
Prospective cohort study
We assessed serum lipids, 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk (CVR) scores, pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), and biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (BMKs) at baseline and 96 weeks (wk) after initiation of anti-HCV therapy (Rx) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.
A total of 237 patients were included. Anti-HCV therapy comprised pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR) plus 1 direct-acting antiviral (DAA) in 55.2%, PR in 33.8%, and all-oral DAA in 11.0%. A total of 147 (62.0%) patients achieved sustained viral response (SVR). Median increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with and without SVR were 14 mg/dl and 0 mg/dl (P=.024), respectively. Increases in CVR categories were found in 26.9% of patients with SVR (P=.005 vs. baseline) and 8.1% of patients without SVR (P=.433). This resulted in a significant interaction between SVR and CVR over time (p
K. E. Coller et al.
Nucleic acid hybridization (NAH) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a practical and reliable tool for virus genotyping. Genotype assignment is an important factor in the prediction of treatment success in chronic hepatitis C patients. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype distribution among HCV clinical isolates in Jordan between 2007 and 2018.
Electronic and paper-based clinical data registry records from 2007 to 2018 at the Jordan University Hospital (JUH) were retrospectively examined for individuals with HCV genotype, HCV viral load, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) testing results. Genotype determination was based on NAH technique using the HCV 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) with 386 requests available from 342 unique individuals.
A total of 263 out of 342 unique individuals (76.9%) had genotyping results available for final analysis with 259 individuals each having a single genotyping result. The most common HCV genotypes in the study were: genotype 4 (n = 142, 54.0%), genotype 1 (n = 87, 33.1%), genotype 3 (n = 16, 6.1%), genotype 2 (n = 9, 3.4%), other undetermined genotypes (n = 5, 1.9%) and mixed infections (n = 4, 1.5%). Sub-genotyping results were available for 46 individuals as follows: sub-genotype 4c/d (n = 13, 28.3%), sub-genotype 1a (n = 11, 23.9%), sub-genotype 1b (n = 10, 21.7%), sub-genotype 4a (n = 8, 17.4%), sub-genotype 3a (n = 2, 4.3%), sub-genotypes 2a/c and 4 h (n = 1, 2.2% for both). Individuals infected with genotype 1 showed higher viral load when compared to those infected with genotype 4 (p = 0.048, t-test). Younger HCV-infected individuals (
Fatma Amer, Monkez M. Yousif, Heba Mohtady, Rania A. Khattab, Ergenekon Garagoz, Khan F.M. Ayaz, Noha M. Hammad
Butt A, Yan P, Aslam S, et al.
AbstractFor persons with baseline Fibrosis-4 1.46–3.25, cirrhosis incidence/1000 patient-years was 49.3 among hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected and 18.2 among HCV monoinfected (P = .03). Cirrhosis risk was numerically higher but statistically nonsignificant among HBV/HCV coinfected (hazards ratio [HR] 1.51; 95% confidence intervals [CI], .37–6.05) but lower among those who attained sustained virologic response (HR, .52; 95% CI, .42–.63).
Epstein RL, Wang J, Hagan L, et al.
This study characterizes hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and the HCV care cascade among 13- to 21-year-olds accessing US federally qualified health centers.
Besson, Caroline; Noel, Nicolas; Lancar, Remi; Prevot, Sophie; Algarte-Genin, Michele; Rosenthal, Eric; Bonnet, Fabrice; Meyohas, Marie-Caroline; Partisani, Marialuisa; Oberic, Lucie; Gabarre, Jean; Goujard, Cécile; Cheret, Antoine; Arvieux, Cedric; Katlama, Christine; Salmon, Dominique; Boué, François; Costello, Regis; Hendel-Chavez, Houria; Taoufik, Yassine; Fontaine, Hélène; Coppo, Paul; Mounier, Nicolas; Delobel, Pierre; Costagliola, Dominique; on behalf of the Lymphovir and FHDH study groups
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis virus (HBV) infections are associated with increased risks of lymphomas in the non-HIV setting. Their impacts on HIV-associated lymphomas deserved further studies in the modern combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era.
We evaluated the associations between HCV, HBV and HIV-related lymphomas in the Lymphovir-ANRS-CO16 cohort.
Prevalence of HCV-seropositivity and chronic HBV infections were compared to those observed in the French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH-ANRS-CO4).
Between 2008 and 2015, 179 patients with HIV-related lymphomas from 32 French hospitals were enrolled, 69 had Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (39%), and 110 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (61%). The prevalence of HCV infection was higher in patients with NHL than in the FHDH-ANRS-CO4 (26% versus 14%, Odd-Ratio (OR): 2.15; 95% confidence interval [1.35–3.32]) while there was no association between HL and chronic HCV infection. Chronic HBV infection was not associated with NHL in our cohort with a prevalence of 5% versus 7% in FHDH-ANRS-CO4 but tended to be associated with HL (prevalence of 14%, OR: 2.16 [0.98–4.27]). Chronic HCV infection tended to pejoratively impact 2-year overall survival in patients with NHL: 72% [57%, 91%] versus 82% [74%, 91%], Hazard-ratio: 2.14 [0.95–4.84]. In contrast, chronic HBV infection did not correlate with outcome.
In the modern cART era, chronic HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of NHL in PLWHIV and tends to pejoratively impact overall survival. HBV infection is not associated with the risk of NHL but with a borderline increase of HL risk.
Correspondence to Caroline Besson, MD, PhD, Hematology-Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, 177 rue de Versailles, 78150 Le Chesnay, France. Tel: +33 139 638 511; fax: +33 139 639 408; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Alternatecorrespondingauthor:DominiqueCostagliola,UMRS1136,INSERM,56BdVAuriol,CS81393,75646ParisCedex13,France,Tel.:+33142164282;fax:+33142164261;e-mail:email@example.com
Received 26 July, 2019
Revised 5 November, 2019
Accepted 11 November, 2019
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://www.AIDSonline.com).
Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
Clinical Immunology Society (CIS) annual meeting 2020
Denver, Colorado, USA
2.04.2020 - 5.04.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
15.04.2020 - 19.04.2020
European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 2020
18.04.2020 - 21.04.2020
DSI årsmøde 2020 (aflyst)
Hindsgavl Slot, Middelfart
1.05.2020 - 2.05.2020
Kursus i rejsemedicin 2020
Statens Serum Institut
4.05.2020 - 6.05.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Clinical Features and Short-term Outcomes of 102 Patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
2.04.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
A randomized clinical trial to compare P. falciparum gametocytaemia and infectivity following blood-stage or mosquito bite induced controlled malaria infection
2.04.2020The Journal of Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Vertical transmission of gut microbiome and antimicrobial resistance genes in infants exposed to antibiotics at birth
2.04.2020The Journal of Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Safeguard research in the time of COVID-19
Modelling COVID-19 transmission: from data to intervention
2.04.2020The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Hvad tænker Professor Jens Lundgren om"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvad synes Professor Troels Lillebæk om"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad mener Professor Lars Østergaard om artiklen"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Thomas Benfield, at du bør læse"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvad synes Professor Niels Obel om"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
Indtast din email for at tilmelde dig vores nyhedsbrev og hold dig opdateret om nyt på hjemmesiden.
© 2020 Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin
version: 2.6.1 ● design: C P Fischer
Side indlæst på 0,242 s