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Kyunghun Min, Aaron M. Neiman, James B. Konopka
Fungal infections are on the rise due to new medical procedures that have increased the number of immune compromised patients, antibacterial antibiotics that disrupt the microbiome, and increased use of indwelling medical devices that provide sites for biofilm formation. Key to understanding the mechanisms of pathogenesis is to determine how fungal morphology impacts virulence strategies. For example, small budding cells use very different strategies to disseminate compared with long hyphal filaments.
Prather, K. A., Wang, C. C., Schooley, R. T.
Masks and testing are necessary to combat asymptomatic spread in aerosols and droplets
Khalid AbdulJabbar, Shan E. Ahmed Raza, Rachel Rosenthal, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, Selvaraju Veeriah, Ayse Akarca, Tom Lund, David A. Moore, Roberto Salgado, Maise Al Bakir, Luis Zapata, Crispin T. Hiley, Leah Officer, Marco Sereno, Claire Rachel Smith, Sherene Loi, Allan Hackshaw, Teresa Marafioti, Sergio A. Quezada, Nicholas McGranahan, John Le Quesne, Charles Swanton, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, John Le Quesne, Allan Hackshaw, Sergio A. Quezada, Nicholas McGranahan, Rachel Rosenthal, Crispin T. Hiley, Selvaraju V
Nature Medicine, Published online: 27 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0900-xMultiregion spatial histology, exome and transcriptome data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer suggest that cancer subclones from immune cold regions diversify later than subclones from immune hot regions
Nancy H. L. Leung, Daniel K. W. Chu, Eunice Y. C. Shiu, Kwok-Hung Chan, James J. McDevitt, Benien J. P. Hau, Hui-Ling Yen, Yuguo Li, Dennis K. M. Ip, J. S. Malik Peiris, Wing-Hong Seto, Gabriel M. Leung, Donald K. Milton, Benjamin J. Cowling
Nature Medicine, Published online: 27 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0946-9Author Correction: Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks
Nicola Whiffin, Irina M. Armean, Aaron Kleinman, Jamie L. Marshall, Eric V. Minikel, Julia K. Goodrich, Nicholas M. Quaife, Joanne B. Cole, Qingbo Wang, Konrad J. Karczewski, Beryl B. Cummings, Laurent Francioli, Kristen Laricchia, Anna Guan, Babak Alipanahi, Peter Morrison, Marco A. S. Baptista, Kalpana M. Merchant, Jessica Alföldi, Irina M. Armean, Eric Banks, Louis Bergelson, Kristian Cibulskis, Ryan L. Collins, Kristen M. Connolly, Miguel Covarrubias, Beryl Cummings, Mark J. Daly, Stacey Donnelly, Yossi
Nature Medicine, Published online: 27 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0893-5Analysis of large genomic datasets, including gnomAD, reveals that partial LRRK2 loss of function is not strongly associated with diseases, serving as an example of how human genetics can be leveraged for target validation in drug discovery.
In epidemiology, the terms ratio, rate, and risk have clear definitions.1 In the emerging publications related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the phrase case fatality rate is being used instead of case fatality ratio.2,3 A ratio is a comparison of two similar quantities. Ratios have no dimensions and can take any value; a ratio of 1 means the two quantities being compared are equal to each other. The case fatality ratio is the ratio of deaths (numerator) to identified cases (denominator), and is usually expressed as percentage.
Biying Zhang, Zhichen Zhu, Wei Jia, Fen Qu, Bin Huang, Bin Shan, Hua Yu, Yiwei Tang, Liang Chen, Hong Du
Enterobacteriaceae is a group of Gram-negative bacilli widely distributed in the environment, mainly including Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, Salmonella, etc. (Diene and Rolain, 2014; Vasoo et al., 2015). Enterobacteriaceae has become an important pathogen of nosocomial and community-acquired infections, usually invading the respiratory and urinary tracts (Kumarasamy et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2015), but can also cause serious blood and cerebrospinal fluid infections (Queenan et al., 2012).
Microbial dysbiosis has been found preceding necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants; thus, we aimed to investigate whether there is evidence that neonates with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) positive stool cultures are at higher risk for NEC at the NICU.
We included very preterm inborn infants of ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age being fecal carriers of ESBL-E and compared them with 1:1 matched (gestational age, birth weight, gender and year) controls tested negative for ESBL-E in the stool between 2005 and 2016. An association with NEC was defined as the first detection of ESBL-E before or at the time of definite diagnosis of NEC.
During the study period, we diagnosed 217 infants with a total of 270 ESBL-E. We identified ten different species with ESBL-producing Klebsiella oxytoca being the most common one (46%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%), and Citrobacter freundii (17%). Ten out of 217 infants had any kind of NEC in the case group compared to two of the controls (p
M. Suchomel et al.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have become the most common diagnostic tool for detection of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in particular in remote areas. RDT blood spots provide a source of parasite DNA for molecular analysis. In this study, the utility of RDTs for molecular analysis and the performance of different methods for whole genome amplification were investigated.
Positive P. falciparum RDTs were collected from Kayin, Myanmar from August 2014 to January 2016. The RDT samples were stored for 6 months, 9 months, 20 months, 21 months, and 32 months before DNA extraction and subsequent molecular analysis of P. falciparum kelch 13 (pfkelch13) mutations, P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1), and P. falciparum plasmepsin 2 (pfplasmepsin2) gene amplification. In addition, performance of four whole genome amplification (WGA) kits were compared, including REPLI-g®, MALBACTM, PicoPLEX®, and GenomePlex®, for which DNA quantity and quality were compared between original DNA and post-WGA products.
The proportion of successful amplification of the different molecular markers was similar between blood spots analysed from RDTs stored for 6, 9, 20, 21, or 32 months. Successful amplification was dependent on the molecular markers fragment length (p value
Narh C, Ghansah A, Duffy M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundThe majority of Plasmodium falciparum infections, constituting the reservoir in all ages, are asymptomatic in high transmission settings in Africa. The role of this reservoir in the evolution and spread of drug resistance was explored.MethodsPopulation genetic analyses of the key drug resistance-mediating polymorphisms were analysed in a cross-sectional survey of asymptomatic P. falciparum infections across all ages in Bongo District, Ghana.ResultsSeven years after the policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in 2005, the Pfcrt K76 and Pfmdr1 N86 wild-type alleles, have nearly reached fixation and have expanded via soft selective sweeps on multiple genetic backgrounds. By constructing the Pfcrt-Pfmdr1-Pfdhfr-Pfdhps multilocus haplotypes we found that the alleles at these loci were in linkage equilibrium and that multidrug resistant parasites haven’t expanded in this reservoir. For Pfk13, 32 non-synonymous mutations were identified, however, none were associated with ACT resistance.ConclusionsThe prevalence and selection of alleles/haplotypes by antimalarials were similar to that observed among clinical cases in Ghana indicating they do not represent two sub-populations with respect to these markers. Thus, the P. falciparum reservoir in all ages can contribute to the maintenance and spread of antimalarial resistance.
Poppe L, Kankasa C, Wood C, et al.
AbstractWhile mother-to-child transmission is believed to play in important role in early childhood infection with Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the maternal immune response remains largely uncharacterized. This study aimed to characterize the longitudinal humoral response to KSHV in a cohort of HIV-infected Zambian mothers without KS and identify potential factors that may influence transmission. In total 86/124 (69.4%) mothers were determined to be KSHV seropositive. Longitudinal KSHV titers were fairly stable temporally, though seroreversion was still common. Of the 124 total mothers, 81 had at least one child KSHV seroconvert during the two years analyzed, while the remaining 43 mothers had KSHV seronegative children. Mothers of KSHV negative children had higher geometric mean titers than mothers of KSHV positive children, however there was no difference in the presence of neutralizing antibodies. This suggests that a strong anti-KSHV immune response, and potentially non-neutralizing antibodies, may reduce transmission.
Chang Kyung Kang,
Pyoeng Gyun Choe,
Taek Soo Kim,
Wan Beom Park,
Journal of Medical Virology, Accepted Article.
Hyun Hee Kwon,
Chi Young Jung,
Rana Muhammad Kamran Shabbir,
Muhammad Sohail Afzal,
Usman Maqsud Qureshi,
Aníbal A. Teherán,
Juan David Ramírez
B. Bartolini et al.
Auld, Sara C.; Caridi-Scheible, Mark; Blum, James M.; Robichaux, Chad; Kraft, Colleen; Jacob, Jesse T.; Jabaley, Craig S.; Carpenter, David; Kaplow, Roberta; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso C.; Adelman, Max W.; Martin, Greg S.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Murphy, David J.; the Emory COVID-19 Quality and Clinical Research Collaborative
To determine mortality rates among adults with critical illness from coronavirus disease 2019.
Observational cohort study of patients admitted from March 6, 2020, to April 17, 2020.
Six coronavirus disease 2019 designated ICUs at three hospitals within an academic health center network in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
Adults greater than or equal to 18 years old with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 disease who were admitted to an ICU during the study period.
Measurements and Main Results:
Among 217 critically ill patients, mortality for those who required mechanical ventilation was 35.7% (59/165), with 4.8% of patients (8/165) still on the ventilator at the time of this report. Overall mortality to date in this critically ill cohort is 30.9% (67/217) and 60.4% (131/217) patients have survived to hospital discharge. Mortality was significantly associated with older age, lower body mass index, chronic renal disease, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, lower PaO2/FIO2 ratio, higher D-dimer, higher C-reactive protein, and receipt of mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, renal replacement therapy, or vasodilator therapy.
Despite multiple reports of mortality rates exceeding 50% among critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019, particularly among those requiring mechanical ventilation, our early experience indicates that many patients survive their critical illness.
Drs. Auld and Caridi-Scheible contributed equally to this article.
This work was supported by the following grants: National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases K23 AI134182 (to Dr. Auld), NIH/Clinical and Translational Science Awards UL1TR002378.
Drs. Auld and Blum received support for article research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Blum’s institution received funding from the NIH received funding from Clew Medical. Dr. Jacob received funding from UptoDate. Dr. Martin received funding from Grifols. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
For information regarding this article, E-mail: email@example.com
Copyright © by 2020 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Lemyze, Malcolm; Courageux, Nathan; Maladobry, Thomas; Arumadura, Clothilde; Pauquet, Philippe; Orfi, Annis; Komorowski, Matthieu; Mallat, Jihad; Granier, Maxime
To investigate patients’ characteristics, management, and outcomes in the critically ill population admitted to the ICU for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia causing an acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Retrospective case-control study.
A 34-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital.
The first 44 coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were compared with a historical control group of 39 consecutive acute respiratory distress syndrome patients admitted to the ICU just before the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis.
Measurements and Main Results:
Obesity was the most frequent comorbidity exhibited by coronavirus disease 2019 patients (n = 32, 73% vs n = 11, 28% in controls; p < 0.001). Despite the same severity of illness and level of hypoxemia at admission, coronavirus disease 2019 patients failed more high flow oxygen via nasal cannula challenges (n = 16, 100% vs n = 5, 45% in controls; p = 0.002), were more often intubated (n = 44, 100% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p < 0.001) and paralyzed (n = 34, 77% vs n = 3, 14% in controls; p < 0.001), required higher level of positive end-expiratory pressure (15 vs 8 cm H2O in controls; p < 0.001), more prone positioning (n = 33, 75% vs n = 6, 27% in controls; p < 0.001), more dialysis (n = 16, 36% vs n = 3, 8% in controls; p = 0.003), more hemodynamic support by vasopressors (n = 36, 82% vs n = 22, 56% in controls; p = 0.001), and had more often a prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation (n = 28, 64% vs n = 10, 26% in controls; p < 0.01) resulting in a more frequent resort to tracheostomy (n = 18, 40.9% vs n = 2, 9% in controls; p = 0.01). However, an intensive management requiring more staff per patient for positioning coronavirus disease 2019 subjects (6 [5–7] vs 5 [4–5] in controls; p < 0.001) yielded the same ICU survival rate in the two groups (n = 34, 77% vs n = 29, 74% in controls; p = 0.23).
In its most severe form, coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia striked preferentially the vulnerable obese population, evolved toward a multiple organ failure, required prolonged mechanical ventilatory support, and resulted in a high workload for the caregivers.
The authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
For information regarding this article, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © by 2020 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Schlievert, P. M., Davis, C. C.
In the 1980s, menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS) became a household topic, particularly among mothers and their daughters. The research performed at the time, and for the first time, exposed the American public as well as the biomedical community, in a major way, to understanding disease progression and investigation. Those studies led to the identification of the cause, Staphylococcus aureus and the pyrogenic toxin superantigen TSS toxin 1 (TSST-1), and many of the risk factors, for example, tampon use. Those studies in turn led to TSS warning labels on the outside and inside of tampon boxes and, as important, uniform standards worldwide of tampon absorbency labeling. This review addresses our understanding of the development and conclusions related to mTSS and risk factors. We leave the final message that even though mTSS is not commonly in the news today, cases continue to occur. Additionally, S. aureus strains cycle in human populations in roughly 10-year intervals, possibly dependent on immune status. TSST-1-producing S. aureus bacteria appear to be reemerging, suggesting that physician awareness of this emergence and mTSS history should be heightened.
Garcia, H. H., Gonzalez, A. E., Gilman, R. H., for the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is endemic in most of the world and contributes significantly to the burden of epilepsy and other neurological morbidity. Also present in developed countries because of immigration and travel, NCC is one of few diseases targeted for eradication. This paper reviews all aspects of its life cycle (taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis), with a focus on recent advances in its diagnosis, management, and control. Diagnosis of taeniasis is limited by poor availability of immunological or molecular assays. Diagnosis of NCC rests on neuroimaging findings, supported by serological assays. The treatment of NCC should be approached in the context of the particular type of infection (intra- or extraparenchymal; number, location, and stage of lesions) and has evolved toward combined symptomatic and antiparasitic management, with particular attention to modulating inflammation. Research on NCC and particularly the use of recently available genome data and animal models of infection should help to elucidate mechanisms of brain inflammation, damage, and epileptogenesis.
Mairet-Khedim M, Leang R, Marmai C, et al.
AbstractBackgroundArtesunate-amodiaquine is a potential therapy for uncomplicated malaria in Cambodia.MethodsBetween September 2016 and January 2017, artesunate-amodiaquine efficacy and safety were evaluated in a prospective, open-label, single-arm observational study at health centers in Mondulkiri, Pursat and Siem Reap Provinces, Cambodia. Adults and children with microscopically-confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria received oral artesunate-amodiaquine once daily for three days plus single-dose primaquine, with follow-up on Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The primary outcome was Day-28 PCR-adjusted adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). An amodiaquine parasite survival assay (AQSA) was developed and applied to whole genome sequencing results to evaluate potential amodiaquine resistance molecular markers.ResultsIn 63 patients, Day-28 PCR-adjusted ACPR was 81.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.9–88.7). Day 3 parasite positivity rate was 44.4% (28/63; 95%CI, 31.9–57.5). All 63 isolates had the K13(C580Y) marker for artemisinin resistance; 79.4% (50/63) had Pfpm2 amplification. The AQSA resistance phenotype (≥45% parasite survival) was expressed in 36.5% (23/63) of isolates and was significantly associated with treatment failure (P = 0.0020). Pfmdr1 mutant haplotypes were N86/184F/D1246 and Pfcrt was CVIET or CVIDT at positions 72–76. Additional Pfcrt mutations were not associated with amodiaquine resistance, but the G353V mutant allele was associated with ACPR compared to Pfmdr1 haplotypes harboring F1068L or S784L/R945P mutations (P = 0.030 and P = 0.0004, respectively).ConclusionsFor uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Cambodia, artesunate-amodiaquine had inadequate efficacy owing to amodiaquine-resistant P. falciparum. Amodiaquine resistance was not associated with previously identified molecular markers.
Bacon O, Chin J, Cohen S, et al.
AbstractBackgroundEarly virologic suppression after HIV infection improves individual health outcomes and decreases onward transmission. In San Francisco, immediate ART at HIV diagnosis was piloted in 2013-14 and expanded citywide in 2015 in a rapid start initiative to link all new diagnoses to care within five days and start ART at the first care visit.MethodsHIV providers and linkage navigators were trained on a rapid start protocol with sites caring for vulnerable populations prioritized. Dates of HIV diagnosis, first care visit, ART initiation, and virologic suppression were abstracted from the SFDPH HIV surveillance registry.ResultsDuring 2013 to 2017, among 1354 new HIV diagnoses in San Francisco, median days from diagnosis to first virologic suppression decreased from 145 to 76 (48%, p
Gardner E, Hawkins K.
HIVantiretroviral therapysame-day startHIV care continuumhealth disparities
Hellard M, Drummer H, Scott N.
Atkinson A, Zwahlen M, Barger D, et al.
AbstractBackgroundUsing data from the COHERE collaboration, we investigated whether primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PcP) might be withheld in all patients on antiretroviral therapy with suppressed plasma HIV RNA (≤ 400c/mL) irrespective of CD4 count.MethodsWe implemented an established causal inference approach whereby observational data is used to emulate a randomised trial. Patients taking PcP prophylaxis were eligible for the emulated trial if their CD4 count was ≤ 200 cells/µL in line with existing recommendations. We compared the following two strategies for stopping prophylaxis: i.) when CD4 count was above 200 cells/µL for more than 3 months, or ii.) when the patient was virologically suppressed (two consecutive HIV RNA ≤ 400c/mL). Patients were artificially censored if they did not comply with these stopping rules. We estimated the risk of primary PcP in patients on ART, using the hazard ratio to compare the stopping strategies by fitting a pooled logistic model, including inverse probability weights to adjust for the selection bias introduced by the artificial censoring.Results4’813 patients (10’324 person years) complied with eligibility conditions for the emulated trial. With primary PcP diagnosis as endpoint, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) indicated a slightly lower, but not statistically significant, different risk for the strategy based on viral suppression alone compared to the existing guidelines (aHR 0.8 with 95% CI [0.6, 1.1], p = 0.2).ConclusionsThe study suggests that primary PcP prophylaxis might be safely withheld in confirmed ART-virologically suppressed patients, regardless of their CD4 count.
de Oliveira L, Shioda K, Valenzuela M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundPneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are recommended for use in pediatric immunization programs worldwide. Few data are available on their effect against mortality. We present a multi-country evaluation of the population-level impact of PCVs against death due to pneumonia in children
Despite the existence of a population-based control program using single dose albendazole or mebendazole as a preventive chemotherapy, hookworm transmission remains high. It causes a negative impact on the growth and school performance of children. In connection to this preventive chemotherapy, different studies produced conflicting results. This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of single (500 mg) versus multiple doses (100 mg twice a day during three consecutive days) of mebendazole against hookworm infections among school-aged children.
This randomized open-label clinical trial took place among school-aged children (6–14 years old) in Burie and Debre Elias towns, Northwest Ethiopia. Using simple randomization, eligible hookworm-positive children were allocated (1:1) to either a single or multiple dose treatment arms. Stool samples were collected and processed using McMaster method at baseline and follow-up period (14–21 days after treatment). Only laboratory technicians were blinded. The cure and egg reduction rates were the primary and secondary therapeutic outcome measures against hookworm infections, respectively. An independent t-test was used to compare group means, and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR). P-value
Scabies is an infectious disease that affects the skin caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and it transmitted through close personal contact. Even though it is easily treatable disease, its prevalence is high and continuous as neglected tropical disease of resource-poor settings, and particularly affects young age groups. Despite of these facts, studies conducted in Ethiopia regarding to the prevalence and associated factors for scabies infestation have been highly variable and didn’t well compiled. Due to that, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimates the overall prevalence of scabies and associated factors in all age groups in Ethiopia.
International databases (PubMed/PMC/Midline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Google and Science Direct) were systematically searched from December 1, 2019, to January 18, 2020. All observational studies noted the prevalence of human scabies and associated factors in Ethiopia were included. Two authors (AG and G.T) independently extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format. The data which is extracted each study were analyzed using STATA Version 14.1. Heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed through the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test. Lastly, a random effects meta-analysis model was computed to fix overall prevalence and associated factors of scabies.
Twelve studies were included in this meta-analysis after 410 articles retrieved. Of these, eight studies were analyzed for prevalence estimation. The overall prevalence of scabies infestation was 14.5% (95%CI: 1.5, 27.6%) in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis revealed the highest prevalence was 19.6% in Amhara region. A person from a large family size (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.67), and sharing a bed (OR: 3.59, 95%CI: 2.88, 4.47) were significantly associated with scabies.
This study revealed the prevalence of scabies infestation was 14.5% in Ethiopia which was high. Persons from high family size and any contact with scabies case were factors associated with scabies.
Elevated Staphylococcus aureus and oral bacterial concentrations are known to correlate with pneumonia hospitalization in nursing home residents. However, the effects of a professional oral care intervention on these factors remain unclear. The aims of this quasi-experimental study were to compare bacterial concentrations in saliva and sputum, oral health status, distribution of Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumonia status before and after a professional oral care intervention.
A purposive sample of residents from two nursing homes was divided into an intervention group that received a weekly professional oral care intervention and a control group. Oral bacterial concentration was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Staphylococcus aureus distribution was determined by bacterial culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. After data collection, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention.
Most residents were unconscious (80%), and most had a history of pneumonia (76%). Baseline demographic data did not significantly differ between the two groups. After the intervention, the intervention group had significant improvements in plaque index (1.66 ± 0.78 vs. 0.94 ± 0.64, p
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) cause a major public health problem that affect both men and women in developing and developed countries. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of 11 STIs among women who voluntarily participated in the study, while seeking gynecological checkup. The existence of an association between the presence of pathogens and symptoms and various sociodemographic risk factors was assessed.
A total of 505 vaginal and cervical specimens were collected from women above 18 years of age, with or without symptoms related to gynecological infections. Nucleic acid was extracted and samples were tested by real-time PCR for the following pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Urealplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma girerdii, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans and Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Positive HPV samples underwent genotyping using a microarray system.
Of the 505 samples, 312 (62%) were screened positive for at least one pathogen. Of these, 36% were positive for Gardnerella vaginalis, 35% for Ureaplasma parvum, 8% for Candida albicans, 6.7% for HPV, 4.6% for Ureaplasma urealyticum, 3.6% for Mycoplasma hominis, 2% for Trichomonas vaginalis, 0.8% for Chlamydia trachomatis, 0.4% for Mycoplasma girerdii, 0.2% for Mycoplasma genitalium and 0.2% for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Lack of symptoms was reported in 187 women (37%), among whom 61% were infected. Thirty-four samples were HPV positive, with 17 high risk HPV genotypes (HR-HPV); the highest rates being recorded for types 16 (38%), 18 (21%) and 51 (18%). Out of the 34 HPV positives, 29 participants had HR-HPV. Association with various risk factors were reported.
This is the first study that presents data about the presence of STIs among women in Lebanon and the MENA region by simultaneous detection of 11 pathogens. In the absence of systematic STI surveillance in Lebanon, concurrent screening for HPV and PAP smear is warranted.
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and anaemia are major health problems. This study assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia and associated factors among pre-school children in rural areas of the Tigray region, northern Ethiopia.
A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 610 pre-school children in rural communities of Northern Ethiopia from June 2017 to August 2017. Stool specimens were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ethyl acetate concentration, Kato–Katz, and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer.
Among the 610 participating pre-school children in the study, the prevalence of IPIs and anaemia were 58% (95% conference interval (CI): 54.1–61.9%) and 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5–25.1%), respectively. Single, double, and triple parasitic infections were seen in 249 (41, 95% CI: 37–45%), 83 (14, 95% CI: 11–17%), and 22 (3.6, 95% CI: 2.4–5.4%) children, respectively. Of the seven intestinal parasitic organisms recorded from the participants, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most prevalent 220 (36.1%) followed by Giardia lamblia 128 (20.1%), and Hymenolepis nana 102 (16.7%). Mixed infections were common among G. lamblia, E. histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst. Intestinal parasitic infection prevalence increased from 47% in children aged 6–11 months to 66% in those aged 48–59 months; the prevalence ratio (PR) associated with a one-year increase in age was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02–1.14, p = 0.009). Age-adjusted prevalence was higher in children who had been dewormed (PR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.00–1.4, p = 0.045), and lower in households having two or more children aged under five (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61–0.95, p = 0.015). Anaemia rose from 28% in children aged 6–11 months to 43% in those aged 12–23 months, then fell continuously with age, reaching 7% in those aged 48–59 months. Age adjusted, anaemia was more prevalent in households using proper disposal of solid waste (PR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.1–2.10, p = 0.009) while eating raw meat (PR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.45–0.54, p = 0.000), any maternal education (PR = 0.64 95% CI: 0.52–0.79, p = 0.000), and household water treatment (PR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56–1.0, p = 0.044) were associated with lower prevalence of anaemia.
More than half of the children were infected with intestinal parasites, while anaemia prevalence was concentrated in the 12–23 month age group. This study has identified a number of potentially modifiable risk factors to address the significant prevalence of IPIs and anaemia in these children. Improvements in sanitation, clean water, hand hygiene, maternal education could address both short and long-term consequences of these conditions in this vulnerable population.
Candida diddensiae, a yeast found in olive oil, is considered non-pathogenic to humans. Here, we describe the first case of fungemia caused by C. diddensiae in a hospitalized patient with underlying diseases.
A 62-year-old woman was admitted because of multiple contusions due to repeated falls and generalized weakness. She presented with chronic leukopenia due to systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple cranial nerve neuropathies due to a recurring chordoma. She was given a lipid emulsion containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) starting on the day of admission. Broad-spectrum antibiotics had been administered during her last hospital stay and from day 8 of this hospitalization. However, no central venous catheter was used during this hospital stay. Blood cultures obtained on hospital days 17, 23, and 24 yielded the same yeast, which was identified as C. diddensiae via sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA of the rRNA gene. In vitro susceptibility testing showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of fluconazole for all isolates was 8 μg/mL. On day 23, TPN was discontinued and fluconazole therapy was started. Blood cultures obtained on day 26 were negative. The fluconazole therapy was replaced with micafungin on day 26 and the patient exhibited improvements.
The use of lipid TPN may potentially contribute to the occurrence of nosocomial fungemia by C. diddensiae, an unusual Candida species.
Brain abscesses are the rare and most severe form of actinomycosis, which usually manifests as abscesses of the occipital or parietal lobe due to direct expansion from an adjacent area, the oral cavity. In the medical literature, there are only a few reported cases of brain abscess caused by Actinomyces meyeri. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient who experienced an insidious headache and left-sided weakness and was diagnosed with an Actinomyces meyeri brain abscess.
A 35-year-old Nepalese man came to our institute with the primary complaint of insidious onset of headache and left-sided weakness. His physical examination was remarkable for the left-sided weakness with power 2/5 on both upper and lower limbs, hypertonia, hyperreflexia and positive Babinski sign, with intact sensory function. Cardiac examination revealed systolic murmur with regular S1 and S2, and lung examination was normal. The patient had poor dental hygiene. Biochemistry and haematology panel were normal. Urinalysis, chest X-ray and electrocardiogram revealed no abnormality. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral regurgitation. However, there was no evidence of valvular vegetation. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was performed, which showed a bi-lobed rim enhancing lesion with a conglomeration of two adjoining round lesions in the right parietal parasagittal region. Perilesional oedema resulting in mass effect over the right lateral ventricle and mid-right uncal herniation with midline shift was noted. Craniotomy was performed, and the lesion was excised. Gram staining of the extracted sample revealed gram variable filamentous rods. Creamy white, moist, confluent colonies were observed after performing anaerobic culture in chocolate agar. On the gram staining, they showed gram-positive filamentous rods. Actinomyces meyeri was identified based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technology. Based on the susceptibilities, he was successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam.
In conclusion, Actinomyces should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brain abscess in patients with poor dental hygiene, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to better results.
Clinicians may be less inclined to consider a diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in people without HIV infection or transplant-related immunosuppression. This may lead to a delay in diagnosis particularly if disseminated cryptococcal disease mimics cerebral septic emboli in injection drug use (IDU) leading to a search for endocarditis or other infectious sources. Though, IDU has been described as a potential risk for disseminated cryptococcal disease.
We present two cases of cryptococcal meningitis in IDU without HIV or other obvious immune deficits. Both patients presented with at least 2 weeks of headache and blurred vision. They developed central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, one of which mimicked septic cerebral emboli, but both resulted with poor neurologic outcomes.
IDU likely induces an underappreciated immune deficit and is a risk factor for developing cryptococcal meningitis. This diagnosis, which can mimic cerebral septic emboli through involvement of a CNS vasculitis, should be considered in the setting of IDU.
Lucas Christian de Sousa‐Paula, Domenico Otranto, Filipe Dantas-Torres
Lutzomyia longipalpis appears primarily in Central and South America and is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum. In Brazil, the country reporting the highest number of human VL cases in the region, this sand fly is reported in 24 of 27 states. L. longipalpis is adapted to human dwellings, which contributes to its spreading in rural and urban areas. Female sand flies are catholic blood feeders with remarkable anthropophilic and endophilic behaviour. The presence of dogs at home and higher dog seropositivity in nearby areas are risk factors for VL.
Sally A Roberts, Arthur J Morris
In 2012, approximately 310 million surgical procedures were done worldwide.1 In the USA between 2006 and 2009, surgical site infections (SSIs) complicated approximately 1·9% of all surgical procedures.2 From this rate we can derive a conservative estimate of approximately 16 000 SSIs globally each day. SSIs cause significant morbidity and divert resources away from other care. For the USA alone, in 2012, the estimated attributable financial impact of SSIs in adults in acute care hospitals was almost US$3·3 billion.
Stijn W de Jonge, Quirine J J Boldingh, Joseph S Solomkin, E Patchen Dellinger, Matthias Egger, Georgia Salanti, Benedetta Allegranzi, Marja A Boermeester
Overall, we identified no conclusive evidence for a benefit of postoperative continuation of antibiotic prophylaxis over its discontinuation. When best practice standards were followed, postoperative continuation of antibiotic prophylaxis did not yield any additional benefit in reducing the incidence of surgical site infection. These findings support WHO recommendations against this practice.
Nonfatal drug overdoses treated in US emergency departments have increased for every type of drug except benzodiazepines, the CDC has reported.
A 13-year-old Idaho boy was treated in February 2019 for a hybrid influenza strain that contained genetic components of both seasonal influenza and 2009 influenza A(H1N1), according to a CDC report.
, Krist AH, Davidson KW, et al.
This 2020 Recommendation Statement from the US Preventive Services Task Force concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care–based behavioral counseling interventions to prevent illicit drug use, including nonmedical use of prescription drugs, in children, adolescents, and young adults (I statement).
O’Connor E, Thomas R, Senger CA, et al.
This systematic review to support the 2020 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement on interventions to prevent illicit and nonmedical drug use summarizes published evidence on the benefits and harms of primary care–based interventions to prevent illicit and nonmedical drug use in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Mother is less noun than predicate in the daily liturgy of care for a second body, childhood’s parade of sensation as in tickle here come the monkeys, now elephants, the clown of a graham cracker bobbing in its dunk-tank of milk, trapeze act of noodles sidling down the tines.
This JAMA Patient Page summarizes the 2020 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation concluding that evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care–based behavioral counseling interventions to prevent illicit drug use in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Baxter B, Matsumura J, Curci JA, et al.
This randomized trial compares the effect of doxycycline with placebo on reducing CT-measured abdominal aortic aneurysms over 2 years among patients with small infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Sheppard JP, Burt J, Lown M, et al.
This randomized clinical trial compares the effects of antihypertensive medication withdrawal vs usual care on systolic blood pressure (SBP) among adults ≥80 years with SBP
Guselkumab, a biologic drug approved to treat patients with moderate or severe psoriasis, significantly and safely improved psoriatic arthritis, a phase 3 trial in The Lancet concluded. Guselkumab is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-23.
Gabapentin prevented heavy drinking and promoted alcohol abstinence among patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and a history of alcohol withdrawal symptoms in a trial in JAMA Internal Medicine.
Northern European Conference on Travel Medicine (NECTM) 2020
Mødet udskudt på grund af COVID-19
3.06.2020 - 5.06.2020
ASM Microbe 2020
Aflyst på grund af COVID-19
18.06.2020 - 22.06.2020
Ph.d. forsvar ved Kristina Langholz Kristensen
International AIDS Conference (AIDS) 2020
6.07.2020 - 10.07.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
27.08.2020 - 29.08.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Ratio, rate, or risk?
28.05.2020The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2
27.05.2020Science Express TOC RSS Feed
Device-Associated Menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome [Reviews]
27.05.2020CMR Current Issue
Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Its Impact in Neurological Disease [Reviews]
27.05.2020CMR Current Issue
Evaluation of World Health Organization–Recommended Hand Hygiene Formulations
27.05.2020Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
Hvorfor synes Professor Jens Lundgren, at du bør læse"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvad synes Professor Troels Lillebæk om"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Lars Østergaard om"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvad synes Professor Niels Obel om"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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