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Peters A, Borzykowski T, Tartari E, et al.
infection prevention and controlinfection controlhand hygieneuniversal health coverageWorld Health Organization
Pietro Giorgio Spezia,
Marzia Del Re,
Torquetenovirus (TTV) viremia is emerging as a promising tool to assess functional immune competence, to predict post‐transplant immune‐related complications, and eventually to customize immunosuppression.
In this study, 327 blood samples were tested using two real‐time PCR (rtPCR) assays both targeted to the untranslated region of TTV genome. The first assay was an in‐house rtPCR developed by our group, the second one was the recently marketed TTV R‐GENE® assay.
In the validation study, the TTV R‐GENE® showed good performances in precision and reproducibility, and a sensitivity as low as 12 TTV DNA copies/ml, like previously reported for the in‐house rtPCR. Bland‐Altman analysis showed that the mean difference between the two methods was ‐0.3 Log copies/ml. In the comparison study, 69% and 72% of samples were detected positive by rtPCR and TTV R‐GENE®, respectively (94% concordance, κ = 0.88). Performances did not differ between the two rtPCRs by type of TTV group examined. When a newly‐developed in‐house digital droplet PCR was applied for TTV quantification and used as alternative method of comparison on 94 samples, the results strongly correlated with those obtained by the two rtPCR methods (99% concordance).
In summary, all the molecular methods assayed are highly sensitive and accurate in quantitation of TTV DNA in blood samples.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Moayedi Y, Walmsley S.
Chodziwadziwa Whiteson Kabudula,
To determine the proportion of under‐5 deaths that occurred at home in rural South Africa, whether care was sought prior to death, and determinants of home deaths amongst those who sought care.
Verbal autopsy data were used for all under‐5 deaths, 2000‐2015, in two health and demographic surveillance system sites. Trends in place of death and care‐seeking were assessed. Associations between sociodemographic factors and home death despite seeking care were assessed by multivariate logistic regressions.
There were 3760 under‐5 deaths; 1954 (53%) at home and 1510 (41%) in health facilities. 84% of children who died at home accessed healthcare during their final illness. Among neonates for whom care was sought, those who were 8‐27 days old were more likely to die at home than those who were 0‐7 days old (OR=5.56, 95%CI 2.69‐11.55, p
Wang, Han; Rhoads, Daniel D.; Appleby, Brian S.
Purpose of review
Prion diseases are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative conditions that can be difficult to diagnose and are transmissible under specific circumstances. The authors will provide background regarding prion disease and focus on diagnostic tools.
Prion disease is caused by misfolded prion protein. The three possible causes of prion disease include sporadic (85%), genetic (10–15%), and acquired (
Zanni M, Awadalla M, Toribio M, et al.
AbstractHIV imparts increased heart failure risk to women. Among WHIV, immune pathways relating to heart failure precursors may intimate targets for heart failure prevention strategies. Twenty asymptomatic, ART-treated WHIV and fourteen non-HIV-infected women matched on age/BMI underwent cardiac MRI and immune phenotyping. WHIV (vs. non-HIV-infected women) exhibited increased myocardial fibrosis (extracellular volume fraction, 0.34±0.06 vs 0.29±0.04;P=0.002), reduced diastolic function (diastolic strain rate, 1.10±0.23 vs. 1.39±0.27 s-1;P=0.003), and heightened systemic monocyte activation. Among WHIV, sCD163 levels correlated with myocardial fibrosis (r=0.53;P=0.02), while circulating inflammatory CD14+CD16+ monocyte CCR2 expression related directly to myocardial fibrosis (r=0.48;P=0.04) and inversely to diastolic function (r= -0.49;P=0.03).
Rogawski_McQuade E, Platts-Mills J, Gratz J, et al.
AbstractBackgroundWe assessed the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions on enteric infections in the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial in rural Zimbabwe.MethodsWe tested stool samples collected at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age and during diarrhea using quantitative molecular diagnostics for 29 pathogens. We estimated the effects of the WASH, IYCF, and combined WASH+IYCF on individual enteropathogen prevalence and quantity, total numbers of pathogens detected, and incidence of pathogen-attributable diarrhea.ResultsWASH interventions decreased the number of parasites detected (difference in number compared to non-WASH arms: -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02), but had no statistically significant effects on bacteria, viruses, or the prevalence and quantity of individual enteropathogens after accounting for multiple comparisons. IYCF interventions had no significant effects on individual or total enteropathogens. Neither intervention had significant effects on pathogen-attributable diarrhea.ConclusionThe WASH interventions implemented in SHINE (improved pit latrine, hand-washing stations, liquid soap, point-of-use water chlorination, and clean play space) did not prevent enteric infections. Transformative WASH interventions are needed that are more efficacious in interrupting fecal-oral microbial transmission in children living in highly contaminated environments.ClinicalTrials.gov IdentifierNCT01824940 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01824940)
To assess temporal trends in the occurrence of severe anaemia in India over the past decade, encompassing every state and union territory.
For the period 2008‐09 to 2017‐18 annual estimates (%) of severe anaemia (haemoglobin
Blumenthal M, Schutz C, Barr D, et al.
AbstractBackgroundDespite increasing numbers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis remains the leading cause of mortality. Approximately 25% of patients treated for tuberculosis have microbiologically unconfirmed diagnoses. We assessed whether elevated Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) viral load (VL) contributes to mortality in hospitalized HIV-infected patients investigated for tuberculosis.Methods682 HIV-infected patients admitted to Khayelitsha Hospital, South Africa, were recruited, investigated for tuberculosis, and followed for 12-weeks. KSHV-serostatus, peripheral blood KSHV-VL, and KSHV-associated clinical correlates were evaluated.ResultsMedian CD4 count was 62 cells/μL (range: 0-526); KSHV-seropositivity was 30.7% (95%CI: 27-34%); 5.8% had detectable KSHV-VL (median 199.1; range: 13.4-2.2x106 copies/106 cells); 22% died. Elevated KSHV-VL was associated with mortality (adjusted OR=6.5 [95%CI: 1.3, 32.4]) in patients without tuberculosis or other microbiologically confirmed co-infections (n=159). Six patients had “possible KSHV-inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS)”: five died, representing significantly worse survival (p
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