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Peters A, Borzykowski T, Tartari E, et al.
infection prevention and controlinfection controlhand hygieneuniversal health coverageWorld Health Organization
In malaria-endemic settings, a small proportion of children suffer repeated malaria infections, contributing to most of the malaria cases, yet underlying factors are not fully understood. This study was aimed to determine whether undernutrition predicts this over-dispersion of malaria infections in children aged 6–18 months in settings of high malaria and undernutrition prevalence.
Prospective cohort study, conducted in Mangochi, Malawi. Six-months-old infants were enrolled and had length-for-age z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) assessed. Data were collected for ‘presumed’, clinical, and rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-confirmed malaria until 18 months. Malaria microscopy was done at 6 and 18 months. Negative binomial regression was used for malaria incidence and modified Poisson regression for malaria prevalence.
Of the 2723 children enrolled, 2561 (94%) had anthropometry and malaria data. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) of LAZ, WAZ, and WLZ at 6 months were − 1.4 (1.1), − 0.7 (1.2), and 0.3 (1.1), respectively. The mean (SD) incidences of ‘presumed’, clinical, and RDT-confirmed malaria from 6 to 18 months were: 1.1 (1.6), 0.4 (0.8), and 1.3 (2.0) episodes/year, respectively. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 4.8% at 6 months and 9.6% at 18 months. Higher WLZ at 6 months was associated with lower prevalence of malaria parasitaemia at 18 months (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.94, p = 0.007), but not with incidences of ‘presumed’ malaria (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.97, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.02, p = 0.190), clinical malaria (IRR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.12, p = 0.571), RDT-confirmed malaria (IRR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.06, p = 0.950). LAZ and WAZ at 6 months were not associated with malaria outcomes. Household assets, maternal education, and food insecurity were significantly associated with malaria. There were significant variations in hospital-diagnosed malaria by study site.
In children aged 6–18 months living in malaria-endemic settings, LAZ, WAZ, and WLZ do not predict malaria incidence. However, WLZ may be associated with prevalence of malaria. Socio-economic and micro-geographic factors may explain the variations in malaria, but these require further study.
Trial registration NCT00945698. Registered July 24, 2009, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00945698, NCT01239693. Registered Nov 11, 2010, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01239693
Moayedi Y, Walmsley S.
Zanni M, Awadalla M, Toribio M, et al.
AbstractHIV imparts increased heart failure risk to women. Among WHIV, immune pathways relating to heart failure precursors may intimate targets for heart failure prevention strategies. Twenty asymptomatic, ART-treated WHIV and fourteen non-HIV-infected women matched on age/BMI underwent cardiac MRI and immune phenotyping. WHIV (vs. non-HIV-infected women) exhibited increased myocardial fibrosis (extracellular volume fraction, 0.34±0.06 vs 0.29±0.04;P=0.002), reduced diastolic function (diastolic strain rate, 1.10±0.23 vs. 1.39±0.27 s-1;P=0.003), and heightened systemic monocyte activation. Among WHIV, sCD163 levels correlated with myocardial fibrosis (r=0.53;P=0.02), while circulating inflammatory CD14+CD16+ monocyte CCR2 expression related directly to myocardial fibrosis (r=0.48;P=0.04) and inversely to diastolic function (r= -0.49;P=0.03).
Rogawski_McQuade E, Platts-Mills J, Gratz J, et al.
AbstractBackgroundWe assessed the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions on enteric infections in the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial in rural Zimbabwe.MethodsWe tested stool samples collected at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age and during diarrhea using quantitative molecular diagnostics for 29 pathogens. We estimated the effects of the WASH, IYCF, and combined WASH+IYCF on individual enteropathogen prevalence and quantity, total numbers of pathogens detected, and incidence of pathogen-attributable diarrhea.ResultsWASH interventions decreased the number of parasites detected (difference in number compared to non-WASH arms: -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, -0.02), but had no statistically significant effects on bacteria, viruses, or the prevalence and quantity of individual enteropathogens after accounting for multiple comparisons. IYCF interventions had no significant effects on individual or total enteropathogens. Neither intervention had significant effects on pathogen-attributable diarrhea.ConclusionThe WASH interventions implemented in SHINE (improved pit latrine, hand-washing stations, liquid soap, point-of-use water chlorination, and clean play space) did not prevent enteric infections. Transformative WASH interventions are needed that are more efficacious in interrupting fecal-oral microbial transmission in children living in highly contaminated environments.ClinicalTrials.gov IdentifierNCT01824940 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01824940)
Soucy, J.-P. R., Schmidt, A. M., Frenette, C., Dolce, P., Boudreault, A. A., Buckeridge, D. L., Quach, C.
Empirical treatment of urinary tract infections should be based on susceptibility profiles specific to the locale and patient population. Additionally, these susceptibility profiles should account for correlations between resistance to different types of antimicrobials. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to investigate geographic, temporal, and demographic trends in resistance to six antimicrobials in community-acquired and nosocomial urinary E. coli isolates from three communities in the province of Quebec, Canada procured between April 2010 and December 2017. A total of 74,986 community-acquired (age ≥ 18) and 4,384 nosocomial isolates (age ≥ 65) were analyzed. In both community-acquired and nosocomial isolates, we found geographic variation in the prevalence of resistance. Male sex (community-acquired hierarchical mean OR = 1.24, 95% credible interval: 1.02–1.50; nosocomial hierarchical mean OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.92–1.41) and recent hospitalization (community-acquired hierarchical mean OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.33–1.66; nosocomial hierarchical mean OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.99–1.78) were associated with a higher risk of resistance to most types of antimicrobials. We found distinct seasonal trends in both community-acquired and nosocomial isolates, but only community-acquired isolates showed a consistent annual pattern. Ciprofloxacin resistance increased sharply with patient age. We found clinically relevant differences in antimicrobial resistance in urinary E. coli isolates between locales and patient populations in the province of Quebec. These results could help inform empirical treatment decisions for urinary tract infections. In the future, similar models integrating local, provincial, and national resistance data could be incorporated into decision-support systems for clinicians.
To assess temporal trends in the occurrence of severe anaemia in India over the past decade, encompassing every state and union territory.
For the period 2008‐09 to 2017‐18 annual estimates (%) of severe anaemia (haemoglobin
Blumenthal M, Schutz C, Barr D, et al.
AbstractBackgroundDespite increasing numbers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis remains the leading cause of mortality. Approximately 25% of patients treated for tuberculosis have microbiologically unconfirmed diagnoses. We assessed whether elevated Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) viral load (VL) contributes to mortality in hospitalized HIV-infected patients investigated for tuberculosis.Methods682 HIV-infected patients admitted to Khayelitsha Hospital, South Africa, were recruited, investigated for tuberculosis, and followed for 12-weeks. KSHV-serostatus, peripheral blood KSHV-VL, and KSHV-associated clinical correlates were evaluated.ResultsMedian CD4 count was 62 cells/μL (range: 0-526); KSHV-seropositivity was 30.7% (95%CI: 27-34%); 5.8% had detectable KSHV-VL (median 199.1; range: 13.4-2.2x106 copies/106 cells); 22% died. Elevated KSHV-VL was associated with mortality (adjusted OR=6.5 [95%CI: 1.3, 32.4]) in patients without tuberculosis or other microbiologically confirmed co-infections (n=159). Six patients had “possible KSHV-inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS)”: five died, representing significantly worse survival (p
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