Gender differences for frailty in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy and with an undetectable viral load
by José-Ramón Blanco, Inmaculada Barrio, Enrique Ramalle-Gómara, María Isabel Beltran, Valvanera Ibarra, Luis Metola, Mercedes Sanz, José A. Oteo, Estrella Melús, Lucía Antón
Background Patients with HIV infection suffer from accelerated aging. In this context, frailty could be a relevant problem that aggravates the quality of life (QoL) and morbi-mortality of these patients. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty in HIV-infected patients in our cohort as well as their risk factors and QoL. Methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study of HIV-infected people aged ≥18 years on a stable antiretroviral regimen (ART) ≥1 year. Frailty was defined by ≥3 of 5 Fried's criteria: weight loss, low physical activity, exhaustion, weak grip strength and slow walking time. Variables related to sociodemographics, HIV infection, comorbidities, polypharmacy, and QoL were evaluated. Independent predictors of frailty were evaluated using collinearity in a multivariate logistic regression analyses (backward stepwise elimination). Results The 248 people studied has a mean age of 49 years, 63.7% were male, and 81% were Caucasian. The prevalence of pre-frailty and fragility was 39.1% and 4.4%, respectively. The main route of HIV acquisition was heterosexual (47.2%). At the inclusion time 26.6% of the patients had AIDS events, 60.9% were anti-HCV negative, and 91.5% had HIV RNA 2 comorbidities, and 13.3% were receiving >5 non-HIV drugs. Frailty patients had a higher age (p 0.006), more sensitive deficits (visual or auditory) (p 0.002), a greater number of falls during the previous year (p 0.0001), a higher Charlson comorbidity index (p 0.001), and a higher VACS index (p 0.001). All comorbidities, excluding bone and liver, were significantly more frequent in fragile patients. The presence of >2 comorbidities and treatment with >5 drugs not related to HIV they were also more frequent in frail patienst (p 0.0001 and p 0.004, respectively). Independent predictors of pre-frailty/frailty in the multivariable analysis differ in men (VACS index, C-reactive protein [CRP], and falls) and women (CRP, AIDS, and menopause). Patients with pre-frailty/frailty had some indicator of a lower QoL. Conclusion Factors associated with pre-frailty/frailty in HIV-infected patients differ by gender, which should be considered when establishing measures for prevention. The role of menopause in the risk of pre-frailty/frailty warrants further investigations.
Tjek på PubMed