Sidst opdateret 24.11.2018
Klik på linket nedenfor, tryk derefter Ctrl + C eller højreklik for at kopiere det.
Nedenfor kan du finde abstracts fra de nyeste artikler indenfor udvalgte internationale tidsskrifter med infektionsmedicinsk relevans. Du kan under "Yderligere søgekriterier" vælge tidsskrifter, hvor langt tilbage i tiden og rækkefølge.
Vælg eventuelt et eller flere søgeord til at afgrænse søgningen. Match, hvis mindst 1 ord er fundet. Benyt semikolon mellem hvert ord.
Vælg et eller flere tidsskrifter fra listen.
Alle | Ingen
Vælg hvor mange dage tilbage i tiden, der skal vælges artikler fra.
Vælg, hvordan resultaterne skal sorteres.
Ingen søgeord valgt. Opdateret for 25 dage siden.9 emner vises.
Gram-positive organisms are a leading cause of infection in cardiovascular surgery. Furthermore, these patients have a high risk of developing postoperative renal failure in intensive care unit (ICU). Some antibiotic drugs are known to impair renal function. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether patients treated for Gram-positive cardiovascular infection with daptomycin (DAP) experienced a lower incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) when compared to patients treated with vancomycin (VAN), with comparable efficacy.
ICU patients who received either DAP or VAN, prior to or after cardiovascular surgery or mechanical circulatory support, from January 2010 to December 2012, were included in this observational retrospective cohort study. We excluded patients with end stage renal disease and antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary endpoint was the incidence of AKI within the first week of treatment. Secondary endpoints were the incidence of AKI within the first 14 days of treatment, the severity of AKI including renal replacement therapy (RRT), the rates of clinical failure (unsuccessful infection treatment) and of premature discontinuation and mortality. To minimize selection bias, we used a propensity score to compare the 2 groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine factors associated with AKI.
Seventy two patients, treated for infective endocarditis, cardiovascular foreign body infection, or surgical site infection were included (DAP, n = 28 and VAN, n = 44). AKI at day 7 was observed in 28 (64%) versus 6 (21%) of the VAN and DAP patients, respectively (p = 0.001). In the multivariate analysis adjusted to the propensity score, vancomycin treatment was the only factor associated with AKI (Odds Ratio 4.42; 95% CI: 1.39–15.34; p = 0.014). RRT was required for 2 (7%) DAP patients and 13 (30%) VAN patients, p = 0.035. Premature discontinuation and clinical failure occurred more frequently in VAN group than in DAP group (25% versus 4%, p = 0.022 and 42% versus 12%, respectively, p = 0.027).
Daptomycin appears to be safer than vancomycin in terms of AKI risk in ICU patients treated for cardiovascular procedure-related infection. Daptomycin could be considered as a first line treatment to prevent AKI in high-risk patients.
Papp-Wallace K, Zeiser E, Becka S, et al.
AbstractPreviously, by targeting penicillin-binding protein 3, Pseudomonas-derived cephalosporinase (PDC), and MurA with ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin, antimicrobial susceptibility was restored among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Herein, ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin combination therapy against MDR P. aeruginosa clinical isolate CL232 was further evaluated. Checkerboard susceptibility analysis revealed synergy between ceftazidime-avibactam and fosfomycin. Accordingly, the resistance elements present and expressed in P. aeruginosa were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome profiling. Mutations in genes that are known to contribute to β-lactam resistance were identified. Moreover, expression of blaPDC, the mexAB-oprM efflux pump, and murA were upregulated. When fosfomycin was administered alone, the frequency of mutations conferring resistance was high; however, coadministration of fosfomycin with ceftazidime-avibactam yielded a lower frequency of resistance mutations. In a murine infection model using a high bacterial burden, ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFUs), by approximately 2 and 5 logs, compared with stasis and in the vehicle-treated control, respectively. Administration of ceftazidime-avibactam and fosfomycin separately significantly increased CFUs, by approximately 3 logs and 1 log, respectively, compared with the number at stasis, and only reduced CFUs by approximately 1 log and 2 logs, respectively, compared with the number in the vehicle-treated control. Thus, the combination of ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin was superior to either drug alone. By employing a "mechanism-based approach" to combination chemotherapy, we show that ceftazidime-avibactam-fosfomycin has the potential to offer infected patients with high bacterial burdens a therapeutic hope against infection with MDR P. aeruginosa that lack metallo-β-lactamases.
Retinoic acid‐inducible gene‐I (RIG‐I) belongs to the RIG‐I‐like receptors (RLRs), a class of primary pattern recognition receptors. It senses viral dsRNA in the cytoplasm and delivers the activated signal to its adaptor VISA, which then recruits the downstream TRAFs and kinases, triggering a downstream signal cascade that lead to the production of pro‐inflammatory cytokines and antiviral IFNs. However, the mechanism of RIG‐I mediated antiviral signaling is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that chitinase domain‐containing 1 (CHID1), a member of the chitinase family, positively regulates the RLR antiviral signaling pathway by targeting the RIG‐I/VISA signalosome. CHID1 overexpression enhances the activation of NF‐кB and IRF3 triggered by Sendai virus (SeV) by promoting the polyubiquitination of RIG‐I and VISA, thereby potentiating IFN‐β production. CHID1 knockdown in human 239T cells inhibits SeV‐induced activation of IRF3 and NF‐κB and the induction of IFN‐β. These results indicate that CHID1 positively regulates RLR antiviral signal, revealing the novel mechanism of the RIG‐I antiviral signaling pathway.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Yuan, G. H., Zheludev, N. I.
We introduce the optical ruler, an electromagnetic analog of a physical ruler, for nanoscale displacement metrology. The optical ruler is a complex electromagnetic field in which singularities serve as the marks on the scale. It is created by the diffraction of light on a metasurface, with singularity marks then revealed by high-magnification interferometric observation. Using a Pancharatnam-Berry phase metasurface, we demonstrate a displacement resolving power of better than 1 nm (/800) at a wavelength of 800 nm. We argue that resolving power of ~/4000, the typical size of an atom, may be achievable. An optical ruler with dimensions of only a few tens of microns offers applications in nano-metrology, nano-monitoring and nano-fabrication, in particular in the demanding and confined environment of future smart manufacturing tools.
Many patients with suspected meningitis do not require hospitalization yet are admitted, often resulting in unnecessary care and additional cost. We assessed the possible economic impact of a rapid multiplex test for suspected adult community-acquired meningitis/encephalitis.
A model simulated diagnosis, clinical decisions, resource use/costs of standard of care (SOC) and two cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing strategies using the FDA-cleared BioFire® FilmArray® System (FA) which provides results in approximately one hour.
Pathogens detected by FA caused approximately 74% of cases, 97% of which would be accurately diagnosed with FA. False positives and false negatives more often led to extended/unnecessary admission than inappropriate discharge/missed admission. Mean cost per case ranged from 16829 to 20791. A strategy of testing all suspected cases yielded greater savings (2213/case) than testing only those with abnormal CSF (812/case) and both were less expensive than SOC.
This economic analysis demonstrates that FA can inform more appropriate clinician decisions resulting in cost savings with greater economic benefits achievable with syndromic testing of all cases, rather than SOC or targeted syndromic testing.
The neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) zanamivir and oseltamivir were the first in that class of influenza antivirals to receive approval by the Food and Drug Administration, with both approved at the turn of the last century [1, 2] The regulatory approvals, for both prophylaxis and treatment of uncomplicated influenza, occurred after standard review of studies. The 2 drugs target nearby sites in the enzymatically active pocket of the virus but are very different in their route of administration and pharmacokinetics [1, 2]. Despite these differences, the results of the clinical trials of both were remarkably similar in terms of the characteristics of prophylactic efficacy and of treatment effects. Recruitment of cases to the treatment studies was based on clinical criteria but was limited to the influenza season; these cases were the intent-to-treat population [3–5]. The studies were done before use of polymerase chain reaction analysis had become accepted for influenza diagnosis, so the standard method of detecting the infecting virus was by cell culture. To avoid misclassification, the definition of infection in most studies also included a rise in the hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titer. Analysis was performed for the intent-to-treat population, as well as only for those who were infected, with the latter performed to estimate the actual effect of treatment. The clinical end point was referred to as “alleviation” of major symptoms of influenza—that is, a shortened duration of illnesses in individuals with uncomplicated disease at onset. Although not part of the primary outcome of the studies, attempts were made in secondary analyses to determine whether there was any reduction in the frequency of complications, such as respiratory infections requiring antibiotics; the antibiotic requirement was included to increase the validity of what was, in most cases, a clinical diagnosis. These diagnoses, as well as hospitalization, were relatively infrequent, as would be expected in studies of uncomplicated influenza, but there was significant reduction in the frequency of these complications both for zanamivir recipients and oseltamivir recipients [6–8].
Suvichapanich, S., Wattanapokayakit, S., Mushiroda, T., Yanai, H., Chuchottawon, C., Kantima, T., Suwankesawong, W., Sonsupap, C., Pannarunothai, R., Tumpattanakul, S., Bamrungram, W., Chaiwong, A., Mahasirimongkol, S., Mameechai, S., Panthong, W., Klungtes, N., Munsoo, A., Chauychana, U., Maneerat, M., Fukunaga, K., Omae, Y., Tokunaga, K.
BackgroundAnti-tuberculosis drug–induced liver injury (ATDILI) is a common side effect leading to tuberculosis (TB) treatment disruption. The mechanism of the disease remains poorly understood. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to investigate all possible genetic factors of ATDILI in Thai patients.ResultsThis study was carried out in Thai TB patients, including 79 ATDILI cases and 239 tolerant controls from our network hospitals in Thailand. Nearly one million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped across the whole genome using an Illumina OmniExpress Exome BeadChip Array. In the discovery stage, we identified strong association signals on chromosome 8 originating from the N-acetyltransferse (NAT2) region. The A allele of rs1495741, the top SNP in the intergenic region of NAT2 and PSD3 (14 kb from NAT2), was significantly associated with ATDILI (recessive model: odds ratio 6.01, 95% confidence interval 3.42-10.57, P = 6.86E-11). This particular SNP was reported as a tag SNP for NAT2 inferred phenotypes. The AA, AG, and GG genotypes represented NAT2 slow acetylators, intermediate acetylators, and fast acetylators, respectively. The tag SNP genotypes demonstrated a concordant rate of 94.98% with NAT2 acetylator phenotypes.ConclusionThis GWAS shows that NAT2 is the most important risk factor for ATDILI in the Thai population.
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Lumbalpunktur af patienter i blodfortyndende behandling (2019)
Reply to Barner and Bruno-Murtha
23.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
False-negative Results of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Testing in HIV Controllers
21.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Resistance of Influenza Virus to Antiviral Medications
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Oseltamivir resistance in severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a French multicenter observational cohort study
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Baloxavir marboxil in Japanese pediatric patients with influenza: safety and clinical and virologic outcomes
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvad synes Professor Niels Obel om"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Thomas Benfield om"Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Morten Sodemann artiklen"Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Niels Obel, at du bør læse"Use of statins and risk of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy."?
Tilmeld dig vores nyhedsbrev og hold dig opdateret om nyt på hjemmesiden
© 2019 Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin
version: 2.5.2 ● design: C P Fischer
Side indlæst på 0,102 s