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Wouthuyzen-Bakker M, Lora-Tamayo J, Soriano A, et al.
Bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. This scenario worsens with the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens, resulting in infections which are difficult to treat or even untreatable with conventional antimicrobials. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological aspects of BSI caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB).
We conducted a laboratory-based surveillance for gram-negative bacteremia over a 1-year period. The bacterial isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and the antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by VITEK®2. Resistance genes were identified through PCR assays.
Of the 143 patients, 28.7% had infections caused by MDR-GNB. The risk factors for MDR bacteremia were male sex, age ≥ 60, previous antimicrobial use, liver disease and bacteremia caused by K. pneumoniae. K. pneumoniae was the most frequently observed causative agent and had the highest resistance level. Regarding the resistance determinants, SHV, TEM, OXA-1-like and CTX-M-gp1 were predominant enzymatic variants, whereas CTX-M-gp9, CTX-M-gp2, KPC, VIM, GES, OXA-48-like, NDM and OXA-23-like were considered emerging enzymes.
Here we demonstrate that clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes are prevalent in this setting. We hope our findings support the development of intervention measures by policy makers and healthcare professionals to face antibiotic resistance.
Stegmann-Planchard S, Gallian P, Tressières B, et al.
AbstractIn a matched case-control study where 24 cases developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the 2014 chikungunya outbreak in the French West Indies and 72 controls were blood donors who donated their blood at the same period, Chikungunya infection was a risk factor for GBS (OR 8.3, 95% CI 2.3-29.7, p=0.001).
In a background of renewed calls for malaria eradication, several endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa are contemplating malaria elimination nationally or sub-nationally. In Mozambique, a strategy to eliminate malaria in the south is underway in the context of low endemicity levels and cross-border initiatives to eliminate malaria in South Africa and Eswatini. In this context, a demonstration project aiming to interrupt malaria transmission through mass antimalarial drug administrations and intensified vector control programmes accompanied by community engagement and standard case management was implemented in the Magude District. To ensure the necessary uptake of these interventions, formative qualitative research explored the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and practices related to malaria, its prevention and control. The current article describes the results of this study.
Seventeen focus group discussions were conducted between September and October of 2015 with the community leaders (6), adult men (5), women of reproductive age (5), and traditional healers (1) in Magude prior to the implementation of the project interventions. Respondents discussed perceptions around malaria symptoms, causes, preventions, and treatments.
Knowledge of malaria was linked to awareness of its clinical presentation, and on-going vector control programmes. Perceptions of malaria aetiology were fragmented but related mainly to mosquito-mediated transmission. Reported preventive measures mostly involved mosquito control although participants were aware of the protective limitations of vector control tools. Awareness of asymptomatic carriers and the risk of outdoor malaria transmission were varied. Fever and malaria-like symptoms triggered immediate care-seeking community at health facilities. The identified barriers to malaria treatment included fear/mistrust in Western medicine, distance to health facilities, and lack of transportation.
Several constraints and opportunities will potentially influence malaria elimination in Magude. Malaria awareness, trust in health institutions, and the demand for chemoprophylaxis could facilitate new interventions, such as mass drug administration. A lack of awareness of asymptomatic carriers, inadequate understanding of residual transmission, and barriers to care seeking could jeopardize uptake. Hence, elimination campaigns require strong community engagement and grassroots mobilization.
Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) are the recommended first- and second-line treatments, respectively, for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Somalia. The studies reported here were conducted to assess the efficacy of these artemisinin-based combinations and the mutations in Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller (Pfk13) domain and amplification in Pfplasmepsin 2 (Pfpm2) gene in Somalia.
One-arm prospective studies were conducted to assess the clinical and parasitological responses to DHA/PPQ and AL at two sites in 2016 and 2017, respectively, using the standard WHO protocol. The patterns of molecular markers associated with artemisinin and PPQ resistance were investigated for the first time in Somalia.
A total of 339 patients were enrolled with 139 for AL and 200 for DHA/PPQ. With AL, no parasite recurrence was observed among patients treated at either site, corresponding to 100% clinical and parasitological responses. For DHA–PPQ, an adequate clinical and parasitological response rate > 97% was observed. All study patients on both treatments at both sites were parasite-free on day 3. Of the 138 samples with interpretable results for the polymorphism in Pfk13, only one (0.7%), from Bosaso, contained a non-synonymous mutation (R622I), which is not one of the known markers of artemisinin resistance. No Pfpm2 amplification was observed among the 135 samples with interpretable results.
AL and DHA/PPQ were highly effective in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, and there was no evidence of resistance to artemisinin or PPQ. These two combinations are thus relevant in the chemotherapeutic strategy for malaria control in Somalia.
Trial registration ACTRN12616001005448 (Jowhar DP study), ACTRN12616000553471 (Bosaso DP study), ACTRN12617001055392 (AL study in Bosaso and Jowhar)
The most recent version of the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections states that a single set of negative blood cultures is sufficient to demonstrate clearance of bacteremia. However, S. aureus might exhibit fluctuating blood culture positivity, labeled as “the skip phenomenon”. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of the skip phenomenon in a cohort of hospitalized patients with S. aureus bacteremia and to determine the associated clinical variables.
We conducted a nested case–control study, using a previous cohort of 757 adult inpatients between July 2006 and June 2011 with ≥ 3 days of S. aureus bacteremia. Each case of S. aureus bacteremia with the skip phenomenon was matched to 2 to 4 controls based on age, gender, and duration of bacteremia. The association of clinical characteristics with the skip phenomenon was analyzed via conditional logistic regression.
Of the 757 patients in the cohort, 29 (4%) had the skip phenomenon. 26 (90%) patients in the cases group were male. The median age was 69.4 years (interquartile range [IQR] 58.7 to 80.3). Although an attempt to match for the duration of bacteremia was done, there was a statistically longer duration in patients with cases as compared to that in controls (median [IQR], 10 [7–12] days, vs 8 [6–10] days; P = 0.015). Accordingly, duration of bacteremia was adjusted for in regression models. Notably, 26 (90%) patients in the case group were receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy, as compared to 69 (79%) patients in the control group (P = 0.427).
Our findings prompt consideration of a practice chance to obtain serial negative blood cultures to ensure clearance of bacteremia among patients with S. aureus bacteremia.
Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the Lassa virus (LASV) and endemic in West African countries with an estimation of 300,000 to 500,000 cases and 5,000 deaths annually. The Margibi County Health Team of Liberia received a report of an unidentified febrile illness case from the Kakata district. We conducted the investigation to identify the causative agent and the source of infection to support treatment, control and prevention interventions.
We identified LASV in the blood specimens’ of two patients by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Both the confirmed cases have manifested respiratory distress, weakness, and difficulty of swallowing, muscle, joint and back pains, and vomiting with blood. The symptoms started with mild fever and gradually developed. Initially, the primary health facilities have miss-diagnosed the patients as malaria and respiratory tract infections. The primary health facilities have referred the patients to the referral hospital as the patients have failed to respond to antimalarial and antibiotics. The hospital suspected LF and sent blood specimens to the National Reference Laboratory while the patients were on supportive treatment in the isolation room. At the time when the laboratory result returned to the hospital, the patients died of LF illness before ribavirin administered.
Our investigation revealed that the two hospitalized and deceased febrile cases were associated with LASV. The primary health facilities have failed to recognize the cases as suspected LF at the earliest time possible. The clinicians and health facilities, especially primary health facilities, need to consider LF as a differential diagnosis when the patient failed to respond to anti-malaria and broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Peter D. Pioli, David Casero, Encarnacion Montecino-Rodriguez, Sherie L. Morrison, Kenneth Dorshkind
Pioli et al. demonstrate that bone marrow plasma cells (PCs) increase in number with age and play an obligate role in the increased production of myeloid cells during aging. They further demonstrate that old PCs are a source of myelopoietic cytokines and regulate their production from BM stroma.
Stier E, Lensing S, Darragh T, et al.
AbstractBackgroundWomen living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) have disproportionately high rates of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus compared with the general population of women. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) precede anal cancer, and accurate studies of HSIL prevalence among WLHIV in the United States are lacking.MethodsThe AIDS Malignancy Consortium 084 study was a multicenter national trial to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for anal HSIL in a US cohort. Eligible participants were WLHIV aged ≥18 years with no history of anal HSIL. Study participants had an examination including collection of cervical/vaginal and anal specimens, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy.ResultsWe enrolled 256 women with evaluable anal pathology. The mean age was 49.4 years, 64% women were non-Hispanic black, 67% were former or current smokers, and 56% reported ever having anal sex with a man. The median CD4 T-cell count was 664 cells/μL. The prevalence of anal histologic HSIL (hHSIL) was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22%–33%). There was a strong concordance (240/254) between local and consensus pathologists for hHSIL vs less than hHSIL (κ = 0.86 [95% CI, .79–.93]). Current CD4 count of ≤200 cells/μL was the strongest predictor of consensus anal hHSIL diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.34 [95% CI, 3.47–30.87]). History of anoreceptive intercourse was also associated with hHSIL (aOR, 2.44 [95% CI, 1.22–4.76]).ConclusionsThe prevalence of anal hHSIL in WLHIV in the United States was 27% in this study where all participants received high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy.
Shah N, Hersh B, Kreger A, et al.
Patel JJ, Bergl PA.
To the Editor Dr Hernández and colleagues conducted a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing sepsis resuscitation strategies targeting capillary refill time (CRT) vs lactate clearance. Studies that gauge peripheral perfusion using easy, reproducible, and resource-independent bedside methods are needed. However, we have some concerns about the study.
Anthony Kusnadi, Sung Ho Park, Ruoxi Yuan, Tania Pannellini, Eugenia Giannopoulou, David Oliver, Theresa Lu, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Lionel B. Ivashkiv
TNF-mediated macrophage polarization is important for inflammatory disease pathogenesis, but the mechanisms regulating polarization are not clear. Kusnadi et al. find that TNF stimulation of macrophages results in late-phase activation of cholesterol regulator SREBP2. SREBP2 binds to inflammatory and interferon response target genes and promotes inflammation. Inhibition of SREBP activity promotes M2-like polarization and improves wound healing.
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Lumbalpunktur af patienter i blodfortyndende behandling (2019)
Reply to Barner and Bruno-Murtha
23.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
False-negative Results of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Testing in HIV Controllers
21.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Resistance of Influenza Virus to Antiviral Medications
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Oseltamivir resistance in severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a French multicenter observational cohort study
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Baloxavir marboxil in Japanese pediatric patients with influenza: safety and clinical and virologic outcomes
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
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Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Morten Sodemann artiklen"Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees."?
Hvad synes Professor Niels Obel om"Use of statins and risk of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy."?
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