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Jenna Wiens, Suchi Saria, Mark Sendak, Marzyeh Ghassemi, Vincent X. Liu, Finale Doshi-Velez, Kenneth Jung, Katherine Heller, David Kale, Mohammed Saeed, Pilar N. Ossorio, Sonoo Thadaney-Israni, Anna Goldenberg
Nature Medicine, Published online: 19 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0548-6In this Perspective, the authors present a framework, context and guidelines for accelerating the translation of machine-learning-based interventions in health care.
Parasites from the genus Plasmodium, the aetiological agent of malaria in humans, can also infect non-human primates (NHP), increasing the potential risk of zoonotic transmission with its associated global public health concerns. In Colombia, there are no recent studies on Plasmodium spp. infecting free-ranging NHP. Thus, this study aimed to determine the diversity of Plasmodium species circulating in fragmented forests in central Colombia, both in Anopheles mosquitoes and in the four sympatric NHP in the region (Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor, Alouatta seniculus and Aotus griseimembra), in order to evaluate the risk of infection to humans associated with the presence of sylvatic hosts and vectors infected with Plasmodium spp.
Overall, there were collected 166 fecal samples and 25 blood samples from NHP, and 442 individuals of Anopheles spp. DNA extraction, nested PCR using mitochondrial (cox3 gene) and ribosomal (18S rDNA) primers, electrophoresis and sequencing were conducted in order to identify Plasmodium spp. from the samples.
Plasmodium falciparum was detected in two fecal samples of Alouatta seniculus, while Plasmodium vivax/simium infected Ateles hybridus, Cebus versicolor and Alouatta seniculus. Co-infections with P. vivax/simium and Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum were found in three individuals. The highest prevalence from blood samples was found for Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum in two Alouatta seniculus while Plasmodium vivax/simium was most prevalent in fecal samples, infecting four individuals of Alouatta seniculus. Seven Anopheles species were identified in the study site: Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula, Anopheles (An.) malefactor, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi, Anopheles (Nys.) triannulatus, Anopheles (An.) neomaculipalpus, Anopheles (Nys.) braziliensis and Anopheles (Nys.) nuneztovari. Infection with P. vivax/simium was found in An. nuneztovari, An. neomaculipalpus, and An. triannulatus. Furthermore, An. oswaldoi and An. triannulatus were found infected with P. malariae/brasilianum. The effect of fragmentation and distance to the nearest town measured in five forests with different degrees of fragmentation was not statistically significant on the prevalence of Plasmodium in NHP, but forest fragmentation did have an effect on the Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) in Anopheles mosquitoes.
The presence of Plasmodium spp. in NHP and Anopheles spp. in fragmented forests in Colombia has important epidemiological implications in the human–NHP interface and the associated risk of malaria transmission.
Wong, Alexander; Goldstein, Deborah; Mallolas, Josep; DeJesus, Edwin; Johnson, Margaret; Molina, Jean-Michel; Pozniak, Anton; Rodgers, Anthony; Teal, Valerie; Hepler, Deborah; Kumar, Sushma; Sklar, Peter; Hanna, George J; Hwang, Carey; Badshah, Cyrus; Teppler, Hedy
No abstract available
Chikwari, Chido Dziva; Njuguna, Irene N.; Neary, Jillian; Rainer, Crissi; Chihota, Belinda; Slyker, Jennifer A.; Katz, David A.; Wamalwa, Dalton C.; Oyiengo, Laura; Bandason, Tsitsi; McHugh, Grace; Dauya, Ethel; Mujuru, Hilda; Stewart, Kearsley A; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Ferrand, Rashida A.; Wagner, Anjuli D.
Gaps persist in HIV testing for children who were not tested in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs. Oral mucosal transudate rapid HIV tests (OMT) have been shown to be highly sensitive in adults but their performance has not been established in children.
ART-naïve children aged 18 months to 18 years in Kenya and Zimbabwe were tested for HIV using rapid OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody test on oral fluids (OMT) and blood-based rapid diagnostic testing (BBT). BBT followed Kenyan and Zimbabwean national algorithms. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the national algorithms as the reference standard.
A total of 1,776 children were enrolled; median age was 7.3 years (IQR: 4.7, 11.6). Among 71 children positive by BBT, 71 were positive by OMT (sensitivity: 100% [97.5%CI: 94.9-100%]). Among the 1,705 children negative by BBT, 1,703 were negative by OMT (specificity: 99.9% [95%CI: 99.6-100.0%]). Due to discrepant BBT and OMT results, 2 children who initially tested BBT negative and OMT positive were subsequently confirmed positive within 1 week by further tests. Excluding these 2 children, the sensitivity and specificity of OMT compared to BBT were each 100% (97.5%CI: 94.9-100% and 99.8-100%, respectively).
Compared to national algorithms, OMT did not miss any HIV-positive children. These data suggest that OMTs are valid in this age range. Future research should explore the acceptability and uptake of OMT by caregivers and health workers to increase pediatric HIV testing coverage.
Corresponding Author: Chido Dziva Chikwari Biomedical Research and Training Institute 10 Seagrave Road, Avondale Harare, Zimbabwe Tel: +263772773879/+2634745583 Email: Chido.DzivaChikwari@lshtm.ac.uk
The authors report no conflicts of interest related to this work.
* Joint first authors
Funding: The study in Zimbabwe was jointly funded by the Duke Global Health Institute, the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID concordat agreement and is also part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union (MR/P011268/1).
The Saliva Testing and Video Information to Expand Uptake of Pediatric HIV Testing (STEP-UP) study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH; P30 AI027757 [CFAR New Investigator Award; PI: Wagner]) and the Thrasher Research Foundation (A119882). INN, DAK, JN, ADW were supported by P30 AI027757. ADW was also supported by A119882. INN was supported by Fogarty International Centre (FIC) D43TW009783. This publication was supported by the University of Washington Global Center for the Integrated Health of Women, Adolescents, and Children (Global WACh). This publication was funded in part by the University of Washington / Fred Hutch Center for AIDS Research, and NIH funded program under award number AI027757, which is supported by the following NIH Institutes and Centers: NIAID, NCI, NIMH, NIDA, NICHD, NHLBI, NIA, NIGMS, NIDDK.
The content of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a widely recognized condition associated with comorbidity and decreased patient quality of life. Certain professional medical organizations develop clinical practice guidelines for major diseases. This is done in an effort to streamline the universal clinical practice and ensure that a more accurate diagnosis and better treatments are offered to respective patients for optimal outcomes. However, as new data evolve, constant update of these guidelines becomes essential. While these guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations, they are not published around the same time; thus, their recommendations may vary depending on evidence available prior to guidelines preparation and publication.
Recommendations and corresponding justifications from three major CDI guidelines between 2013 and 2017 were pooled and compared, and notable differences were highlighted while providing an insight and a final recommendation from a clinical standpoint.
Most recommendations were consistent among all three guidelines. One notable difference was in the specification of candidates for CDI diagnosis, where it would be recommended to mainly test patients with three or more diarrheal episodes over 24 h, if they had no other clear reason for the diarrhea. Another conflicting point was regarding the treatment of non-severe CDI where vancomycin can be considered for older or sicker patients; however, metronidazole still remains a reasonable option based on recent data, some of which were not cited in the most recent guidelines of IDSA/SHEA.
Overall, it is prudent to follow these guidelines with critical appraisal to fulfill the goal of achieving optimum patient outcomes.
R. Harvey et al.
N. Okba et al.
M. D. Van Kerkhove et al.
Cryptosporidium is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea in African children 0–23 months old. It is associated with excess mortality, stunting and malnutrition. The most common manifestation of cryptosporidium is intestinal diarrheal disease. However, respiratory cryptosporidiosis has been documented in up to a third of children presenting with diarrhea. It is unclear whether respiratory involvement is a transient phenomenon or a reservoir for gastrointestinal (GI) disease. This study aims to evaluate the role of respiratory cryptosporidiosis in pediatric diarrheal disease.
This is a prospective, observational study conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. Young children aged 2–24 months hospitalized with diarrhea will be enrolled. Enrolled children will have induced sputum, nasopharyngeal (NP) swab and stool samples collected. All participants positive for cryptosporidium on sputum/NP/stool PCR testing will be followed up fortnightly after discharge from the hospital up to 8 weeks post-discharge. Sputum/NP/stool sample collection will be done at each visit. The primary outcomes will be presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in sputum/NP/stool. The secondary outcome will be presence of respiratory and GI symptoms, mortality and stunting. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Malawi College of Medicine Research Ethics Committee (COMREC) and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) research ethics committee.
The study began recruitment activities at QECH in February 2019. The protocol allows for expansion of recruitment to secondary sites within Blantyre and Chikwawa districts in the event that targets are not met at QECH. Study recruitment is expected to continue until early 2020.
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