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Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been rapidly developed and widely used as an analytical technique in clinical laboratories with high accuracy in microorganism identification.
To validate the efficacy of MALDI-TOF MS in identification of clinical pathogenic anaerobes.
Twenty-eight studies covering 6685 strains of anaerobic bacteria were included in this meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models based on the P-value and the I-squared were used for meta-analysis to consider the possibility of heterogeneity between studies. Statistical analyses were performed by using STATA 12.0.
The identification accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS was 84% for species (I2 = 98.0%, P
O. Paccoud et al.
In the pre-vaccine era, invasive disease with Haemophilus influenzae, type b (Hib) commonly presented with osteoarticular involvement. Haemophilus influenzae, type a (Hia) sepsis is a rare but emerging problem in recent years. Here, we report a case of sepsis with concomitant osteoarthritis due to Hia that was the presenting infectious disease manifestation of isolated asplenia in a young child. This unique observation adds to our understanding of sepsis and asplenia in children.
A five-year-old girl developed acute Hia bacteremia and sepsis. The patient developed arthritis shortly after onset of septic shock. Arthrocentesis was culture-negative, but given the difficulty differentiating between septic and reactive arthritis, prolonged antibiotic administration was provided for presumed osteoarticular infection, and the patient had an uneventful recovery. The finding of Howell-Jolly bodies on blood smear at the time of presentation prompted an evaluation that revealed isolated congenital asplenia. Evaluation for known genetic causes of asplenia was unrevealing. Investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health revealed an emergence of Hia infections over the past 5 years, particularly in children with an American Indian background.
Hia is an important pathogen in the differential diagnosis of invasive bacterial infections in children and shares overlap in clinical presentation and pathogenesis with Hib. Invasive Hia disease can be a presenting manifestation of asplenia in children. Hia is an emerging pathogen in American Indian children.
Napoleon González Saldaña, Mercedes Macías Parra, Eduardo Arias de la Garza, Sara Solorzano Morales, Diego Galvis Trujillo, Hugo Juarez Olguin, Ana Jocelyn Carmona Vargas, Martin Eduardo Palavicini Rueda and Jose Ivan Castillo Bejarano
Primary rib cage tuberculosis (TB) is an infrequent form of presentation and represents 1% of all cases of osteoarticular TB. We report three cases of children who were previously healthy and who began with swelling of the anterior surface of the rib as initial manifestation of TB. The most important clinical presentations in this series were swelling and pain, with lytic lesions and a soft tissue mass in image studies simulating oncologic pathologies. Because none of the cases had positive epidemiological contact, TB was initially not considered, so the delay in diagnosis from the onset of symptoms was 4, 1, and 2 months, respectively. The diagnosis was made through histomorphological analyses. Treatment was administered during 12, 10, and 9 months. Posttreatment studies did not show any evidence of extrapulmonary TB and until date, the patients remained without relapse or active disease. The findings in our cases illustrate that the diagnosis of chest wall TB should be suspected in all patients from endemic areas who present rib injury.
Monroe A, Happ L, Rayeed N, et al.
AbstractBackgroundUsing the results of a site assessment survey performed at clinics throughout Washington DC, we studied the impact of clinic-level factors on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and viral suppression (VS) among people living with HIV (PLWH).MethodsThis was a retrospective analysis from the DC Cohort, an observational clinical cohort of PLWH from 2011-2018. We included data from PLWH not on ART and not virally suppressed at enrollment. Outcomes were ART initiation and VS (HIV RNA
Klebsiella variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are new species distinguishable from K. pneumoniae but they are often misidentified as K. pneumoniae in clinical settings. Several reports have demonstrated the possibility that the virulence factors and clinical features differ among these three phylogroups. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether there were differences in clinical and bacterial features between the three phylogroups isolated from patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Japan.
Isolates from all patients with BSIs caused by K. pneumoniae admitted to two hospitals between 2014 and 2017 (n = 119) were included in the study. Bacterial species were identified via sequence analysis, and their virulence factors and serotypes were analyzed via multiplex PCR results. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records.
Of the 119 isolates, 21 (17.7%) were identified as K. variicola and 11 (9.2%) as K. quasipneumoniae; K1 serotype was found in 16 (13.4%), and K2 serotype in 13 (10.9%). Significant differences in the prevalence of rmpA, iutA, ybtS, entB and kfu (p
Lorne Farovitch, Rachel Sippy, Efraín Beltrán-Ayala, Timothy P. Endy, Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra and Brian F. Leydet Jr.
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a growing public health threat and are increasingly identified as the cause of undifferentiated febrile illness. There is a significant gap in our understanding of ticks and their associated pathogens in Ecuador. An arboviral surveillance study allowed us to explore potential exposure to TBDs in febrile subjects. We tested plasma samples from 222 febrile subjects for spotted fever group rickettsial (SFGR) antibodies from southern coastal Ecuador in 2014–2015 via ELISA. Fifty-five (25%) subjects had evidence of anti-SFRG IgG or IgM antibodies. Although attempts to detect Rickettsia species in plasma by polymerase chain reaction were unsuccessful, these preliminary data suggest the possibility of endemic SFGR transmission in Ecuador. To better understand the burden and entomological risk for TBDs in Ecuador, future studies should expand TBD surveillance in humans, document common human-biting ticks, and measure pathogen carriage rates in questing ticks.
Bacillus anthracis causes a highly lethal infectious disease primarily due to toxin-mediated injury. Antibiotics are no longer effective to treat the accumulation of anthrax toxin, thereby new strategies of antibody treatment are essential. Two anti- anthrax protective antigen (PA) antibodies, hmPA6 and PA21, have been reported by our lab previously.
The mechanisms of the two antibodies were elucidated by Electrophoresis, Competitive Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay, Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation test, and in vitro, in vivo (F344 rats) treatment test. The epitopes of the two antibodies were proved by Western blot and Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay with different domains of PA.
In this study, we compared affinity and neutralization of these two antibodies. PA21 was better in protecting cells and rats, whereas hmPA6 had higher affinity. Furthermore, the neutralization mechanisms of the two antibodies and their recognition domains of PA were studied. The results showed that hmPA6 recognized domain IV, thus PA could not bind to cell receptors. Conversely, PA21 recognized domain II, thereby limiting heptamer oligomerization of PA63 in cells.
Our studies elucidated the mechanisms and epitopes of hmPA6 and PA21. The present investigation can advance future use of the two antibodies in anthrax treatment or prophylaxis, and potentially as a combination treatment as the antibodies target different epitopes.
L. Caly et al.
Initiating early effective antimicrobial therapy is the most important intervention demonstrated to decrease mortality in patients with gram-negative bacteremia with sepsis. Rapid MIC-based susceptibility results make it possible to optimize antimicrobial use through both escalation and de-escalation.
We prospectively evaluated the performance of the Accelerate Pheno™ system (AXDX) for identification and susceptibility testing of gram-negative species and compared the time to result between AXDX and routine standard of care (SOC) using 82 patient samples and 18 challenge organisms with various confirmed resistance mechanisms. The potential impact of AXDX on time to antimicrobial optimization was investigated with various simulated antimicrobial stewardship (ASTEW) intervention models.
The overall positive and negative percent agreement of AXDX for identification were 100 and 99.9%, respectively. Compared to VITEK® 2, the overall essential agreement was 96.1% and categorical agreement was 95.4%. No very major or major errors were detected. AXDX reduced the time to identification by an average of 11.8 h and time to susceptibility by an average of 36.7 h. In 27 patients evaluated for potential clinical impact of AXDX on antimicrobial optimization, 18 (67%) patients could potentially have had therapy optimized sooner with an average of 18.1 h reduction in time to optimal therapy.
Utilization of AXDX coupled with simulated ASTEW intervention notification substantially shortened the time to potential antimicrobial optimization in this cohort of patients with gram-negative bacteremia. This improvement in time occurred when ASTEW support was limited to an 8-h coverage model.
L. Leibovici, L. Scudeller, A. Kalil, A. Huttner, M.M.G. Leeflang, J. Bielicki, F. Allerberger, M. Paul, J. Rodríguez-Baño
In the last 5 years we have published in CMI more than 300 articles that used and reported multivariable models. The reporting was heterogeneous; that is why the present Editorial Note aims to provide guidance on how to report on the derivation of multivariable regression models and on the final model in CMI articles.
Nino Khetsuriani, Ketevan Sanadze, Mariam Abuladze, Nana Tatishvili
To describe cases and estimate subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) risk following large-sale measles outbreaks in Georgia. SSPE, a rare, fatal late complication of measles, is often overlooked in assessments focused on the acute illness. Georgia had 8,377 and 11,495 reported measles cases during the 2004-2005 and 2013-2015 outbreaks, respectively, but SSPE burden has not been assessed.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause poor outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients; moreover, it is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the general population. Accordingly, anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroepidemiology may be useful in identifying the risk of post-SOT HCMV infection or disease as well as immunosenescence or CVD. However, HCMV seroprevalence and titre have not been fully evaluated with regard to age distribution or compared between SOT recipients and healthy individuals in South Korea.
We retrospectively retrieved all unduplicated anti-HCMV IgG results of individuals aged > 1 year evaluated between July 2006 and November 2017 at Severance Hospital in Seoul. The cohort, excluding haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and subjects with equivocal values, included 2184 SOT recipients and 3015 healthy transplant donors. All IgG results in the SOT recipients were measured during the pre-transplant period.
The overall IgG seroprevalence and titres were significantly higher among SOT recipients than among healthy donors (98.7% vs. 88.6%, p
A. P. Borsoi et al.
A large proportion of people who inject drugs (PWID) living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have not been treated. It is unknown whether inclusion of HCV diagnostics and treatment into integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics will improve uptake and outcome of HCV treatment in PWID. The aim is to assess the efficacy of integrating HCV treatment to PWID and this paper will present the protocol for an ongoing trial.
INTRO-HCV is a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial that will compare the efficacy of integrated treatment of HCV in PWID with the current standard treatment. Integrated treatment includes testing for HCV, assessing liver fibrosis with transient elastography, counselling, treatment delivery, follow-up and evaluation provided by integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics. Most of these clinics for PWID provide opioid agonist therapy while some clinics provide low-threshold care without opioid agonist therapy. Standard care involves referral to further diagnostics, treatment and treatment follow-up given in a hospital outpatient clinic with equivalent medications. The differences between the delivery platforms in the two trial arms involve use of a drop-in approach rather than specific appointment times, no need for additional travelling, less blood samples taken during treatment, and treatment given from already known clinicians. The trial will recruit approximately 200 HCV infected individuals in Bergen and Stavanger, Norway. The primary outcomes are time to treatment initiation and sustained virologic response, defined as undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, treatment adherence, changes in quality of life, fatigue and psychological well-being, changes in drug use, infection related risk behaviour, and risk of reinfection. The target group is PWID with HCV diagnosed receiving treatment and care within clinics for PWID.
This study will inform on the effects of an integrated treatment program for HCV in clinics for PWID compared to standard care aiming to increase access to treatment and improving treatment adherence. If the integrated treatment model is found to be safe and efficacious, it can be considered for further scale-up.
Vimal Kumar Paliwal, Animesh Das, Sucharita Anand and Prabhakar Mishra
Intravenous (IV) dexamethasone is recommended for 14 days in stage 1 and 28 days in stage 2/3 tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We used a different steroid protocol. We shifted TBM patients to oral steroids after 48 hours of sustained improvement on IV steroids (oral group). Patients who worsened after shifting to oral steroids were reinitiated on IV steroids. Once they showed a consistent improvement for 48 hours, the IV steroids were overlapped with oral steroids for 7–10 days to taper off IV steroids (overlap group). We compared total IV steroid days in our patients with the recommended treatment and identified predictors that favored the oral group. This was a retrospective study. We included 98 patients with TBM (66 in the overlap group and 32 in the oral group) from January 2013 to July 2018. The median IV steroid days were 9 days (interquartile range of 4–12; 2–3.5 days in the oral group and 10–11.5 days in the overlap group). The mortality rate was 6.1%. The logistic regression model showed that TBM patients with basal exudate, tuberculoma, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) < 3 had a higher probability for going to the oral group. We conclude that total IV steroid days can be reduced in TBM patients by our method of steroid use. Presence of basal exudates and tuberculoma may favor early shifting from IV to oral steroid, whereas higher mRS may require a relatively longer course of IV steroid.
In recent years, the number of infective endocarditis (IE) cases associated with injection drug use has increased. Clinical guidelines suggest deferring surgery for IE in people who inject drugs (PWID) due to a concern for worse outcomes in comparison to non-injectors (non-PWID). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of long-term outcomes in PWID who underwent cardiac surgery and compared these outcomes to non-PWID.
We systematically searched for studies reported between 1965 and 2018. We used an algorithm to estimate individual patient data (eIPD) from Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves and combined it with published individual patient data (IPD) to analyze long-term outcomes after cardiac surgery for IE in PWID. Our primary outcome was survival. Secondary outcomes were reoperation and mortality at 30-days, one-, five-, and 10-years. Random effects Cox regression was used for estimating survival.
We included 27 studies in the systematic review and 19 provided data (KM or IPD) for the meta-analysis. PWID were younger and more likely to have S. aureus than non-PWID. Survival at 30-days, one-, five-, and 10-years was 94.3, 81.0, 62.1, and 56.6% in PWID, respectively; and 96.4, 85.0, 70.3, and 63.4% in non-PWID. PWID had 47% greater hazard of death (HR 1.47, 95% CI, 1.05–2.05) and more than twice the hazard of reoperation (HR 2.37, 95% CI, 1.25–4.50) than non-PWID.
PWID had shorter survival that non-PWID. Implementing evidence-based interventions and testing new modalities are urgently needed to improve outcomes in PWID after cardiac surgery.
Tozay S, Fischer W, II, Wohl D, et al.
AbstractBackgroundCohort studies have reported a high prevalence of musculoskeletal, neurologic, auditory, and visual complications among Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) survivors; however, little is known about the host- and disease-related predictors of these symptoms and their etiological mechanisms.MethodsThe presence and patterns of eight cardinal symptoms that are most commonly reported following EVD survival were assessed in the 326 EVD survivors participating in the ongoing longitudinal Liberian EVD Survivor Study. At quarterly study visits, symptoms that developed since acute EVD were recorded and blood was collected for biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation.ResultsAt baseline (mean 408 days from acute EVD), 75.5% of survivors reported at least one new cardinal symptom since surviving EVD, which in 85.8% was rated as highly interfering with life. Two or more incident symptoms were reported by 61.0% of survivors with pairings of joint pain, headache, or fatigue the most frequent. Women were significantly more likely than men to report headache while older age was significantly associated with musculoskeletal and visual symptoms. In analyses adjusted for multiple comparisons, no statistically significant association was found between any symptom and 26 markers of inflammation and immune activation. Symptom frequency remained largely unchanged during study follow-up.ConclusionsPost-EVD complications occur in a majority of survivors and remain present more than 4 years after acute infection. An association between markers of inflammation and immune activation and individual symptoms was not found, suggesting an alternative etiology for persistent post-EVD symptomatology.
T. Kaewarpai, P. Ekchariyawat, R. Phunpang, S.W. Wright, A. Dulsuk, B. Moonmueangsan, C. Morakot, E. Thiansukhon, N.P.J. Day, G. Lertmemongkolchai, T.E. West, N. Chantratita
To characterize plasma cytokine responses in melioidosis and analyse their association with mortality.
Andreza Oliveira-Cortez, Emerson Lopes Froede, Angelita Cristine de Melo, Clemax Couto Sant’Anna, Leonardo Araújo Pinto, Eliana Maria Mauricio da Rocha, Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira and Paulo Camargos
This follow-up cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the prevalence rate and risk factors related to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (TB) in children aged < 15 years in contact with adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a Brazilian municipality. Data were collected from interviews, clinical evaluations, chest X-rays, tuberculin skin tests, and interferon gamma release assays. The median time elapsed between diagnosis of the index case (IC) and inclusion in the study was 2.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.5–4.4) and 7.4 years (IQR = 3.8–9.7) when we reassessed the development (or not) of active TB. The median age at the time of exposure to the IC was 6.6 years (IQR = 3.3–9.4) and 14.1 years (IQR = 8.9–17.7) at the last follow-up. Of the 99 children and adolescents in contact with smear-positive PTB, 21.2% (95% CI = 14.0–29.9) were diagnosed with LTBI, and none developed active TB. There was no statistically significant difference between the LTBI and non-LTBI groups regarding demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological characteristics. Unlike national and international scenarios, we found a lower frequency of LTBI and no active TB among our studied patients. For better understanding of these findings, further studies might add, among other factors, host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic features.
Krakower D, Marcus J.
Balzer L, Havlir D, Kamya M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundIn generalized epidemic settings, strategies are needed to prioritize individuals at higher risk of HIV acquisition for prevention services such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. We used population-level HIV testing data from rural Kenya and Uganda to construct HIV risk scores and assessed their ability to identify seroconversions.MethodsBetween 2013-2017, >75% of residents in 16 communities in the SEARCH Study tested annually for HIV. In this population, we evaluated three strategies for using demographic factors to predict the one-year risk of HIV seroconversion: (1) membership in ≥1 known “Risk Group” (e.g., young woman or HIV-infected spouse); (2) a “Model-based” risk score constructed with logistic regression; (3) a “Machine Learning” risk score constructed with the Super Learner algorithm. We hypothesized Machine Learning would identify high-risk individuals more efficiently (fewer persons targeted for a fixed sensitivity) and with higher sensitivity (for a fixed number of persons targeted) than either other approach.Results75,558 HIV-negative persons contributed 166,723 person-years of follow-up; 519 seroconverted. Machine Learning improved efficiency; to achieve a fixed sensitivity of 50%, the Risk Group strategy targeted 42% of the population, Model-based 27%, and Machine Learning 18%. Machine Learning also improved sensitivity; with an upper limit of 45% targeted, the Risk Group strategy correctly classified 58% of seroconversions, Model-based 68%, and Machine Learning 78%.ConclusionsMachine learning improved classification of individuals at risk of HIV acquisition compared to a model-based approach or reliance on known risk groups, and could inform targeting of prevention strategies in generalized epidemic settings.
Localized `and disseminated Nocardia farcinica infection is frequently reported in immunocompromised patients. However, orbital nocardiosis is rare, and, to our knowledge, traumatic orbital nocardiosis that affects the brain has never been described. Here, we report a case of traumatic orbital and intracranial N. farcinica infection in an immunocompetent patient.
A 35-year-old man, who was immunocompetent, to the best of our knowledge and as per the absence of immunodeficiency symptoms, with orbital trauma caused by the penetration of a rotten bamboo branch developed lesions in the orbit and brain. Subsequently, he underwent debridement and received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, but orbital infection occurred, with drainage of pus through the sinus tract. The patient then underwent endoscope-assisted local debridement. Bacterial culture of the sinusal pus was positive for N. farcinica, and a combined intracranial infection had developed. The disease was treated effectively by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ceftriaxone sodium therapy. The patient remained infection free and without complications at the 14-month follow-up.
Traumatic orbital and intracranial infection caused by N. farcinica is a rare infectious disease, and atypical presentations easily lead to misdiagnosis. When a patient presents with an atypical orbital infection that is unresponsive to empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics, along with suspicious neurologic symptoms, Nocardia infection should be considered. Identification by bacterial culture is the gold standard. Complete local debridement and appropriate antibiotic treatment are keys to the treatment of the disease.
Osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is a rare cause of pelvic pain after delivery, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The clinical context is the same as the more common diastasis of the pubic bone, but the presence of intense local pain in association with fever should prompt further clinical work-up based on blood chemistry, microbiology and diagnostic imaging. We report the first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis occuring after the delivery.
A 39-year-old woman developed pain over the pubic bone 12 h after the delivery. After 72 h fever rose and laboratory examination showed elevation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels. Pelvic x-rays and magnetic resonance showed pubic diastasis, joint effusion, tiny irregularities of articular surfaces and, severe bone edema. The patient was started on broad spectrum intravenous (IV) antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam) and then replaced to IV vancomycin and oral levofloxacin based on antibiogram result. She was then discharged with oral antibiotic therapy and fully recovered.
Due to the rarity of this disease, we compared our experience with the other cases of osteomyelitis of pubic symphysis occurring in peri-postpartum reported in the literature. The course of osteomyelitis was favourable in all patients, and only in one case an additional orthopedic procedure for symphysis fixation was necessary. Knowledge of this rare condition is important to enable prompt diagnosis and treatment.
A. Wang et al.
L. Neill et al.
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most common invasive fungal infection. The epidemiology of IC in hospitalized patients has been widely investigated in many metropolitan cities; however, little information from medium and small cities is known.
A 5-year retrospective study was carried out to analyze the prevalence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, risk factors and mortality of inpatients with invasive Candida infection in a regional tertiary teaching hospital in Southwest China.
A total of 243 inpatients with invasive Candida infection during the five-year study period were identified, with a mean annual incidence of 0.41 cases per 1000 admissions and a 30-day mortality rate of 12.3%. The species distributions of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and other Candida species was 45.3, 30.0, 15.2, 4.9, 2.1 and 2.5%, respectively. The total resistance rates of fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC) were 18.6, 23.1 and 18.5%, respectively. Respiratory dysfunction, pulmonary infection, cardiovascular disease, chronic/acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, abdominal surgery, intensive care in adults, septic shock and IC due to C. albicans were associated with 30-day mortality (P
Lucas S. Blanton, Nicholas M. Wilson, Bethany R. Quade and David H. Walker
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a severe tick-borne infection endemic to the Americas. Oral doxycycline is effective, but during severe life-threatening disease, intravenous therapy is recommended. Unfortunately, intravenous formulations of doxycycline are not always available. Therefore, we aimed to determine the susceptibility of R. rickettsii to an alternative parenteral agent, tigecycline, in vitro and in vivo. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline, R. rickettsii–inoculated Vero cells were incubated with medium containing tigecycline. At various time points, monolayers were collected and R. rickettsii was quantified via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The growth of R. rickettsii was inhibited in the presence of ≥ 0.5 µg/mL of tigecycline. To determine the effectiveness of tigecycline in vivo, guinea pigs were inoculated with R. rickettsii. Five days after inoculation, they were treated twice daily with subcutaneous tigecycline 3.75 mg/kg or subcutaneous doxycycline 5 mg/kg. Treated animals improved, whereas untreated controls remained ill. Tissues were collected for quantitative PCR–determined bacterial loads on day 8. Median bacterial loads in the tigecycline group were less than those in untreated animals: liver (0 versus 2.9 × 104 copies/mg), lung (0 versus 8.3 × 103 copies/mg), skin (2.6 × 102 versus 2.2 × 105 copies/mg), spleen (0 versus 1.3 × 104 copies/mg), and testes (0 versus 1.0 × 105 copies/mg, respectively). There were no significant differences in the bacterial loads between doxycycline-treated versus tigecycline-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that tigecycline is effective against R. rickettsii in cell culture and in an animal model of RMSF.
I. Griffin et al.
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
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Prediction model for pneumonia in primary care patients with an acute respiratory tract infection: role of symptoms, signs, and biomarkers
20.11.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Estimating extra length of stay and risk factors of mortality attributable to healthcare-associated infection at a Chinese university hospital: a multi-state model
20.11.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Antigenic fingerprinting of RSV-A infected hematopoietic cell transplant recipients reveals importance of mucosal anti-RSV-G antibodies in control of RSV infection in humans
20.11.2019The Journal of Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Development of a high number, high coverage dog rabies vaccination programme in Sri Lanka
20.11.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
BK Polyomavirus-specific T cell immune responses in kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with BK Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy
19.11.2019Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Hvad mener Professor Troels Lillebæk om artiklen"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Lars Østergaard om"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad synes Professor Thomas Benfield om"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Niels Obel artiklen"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Thomas Benfield, at du bør læse"Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial."?
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