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Winfried V. Kern, Siegbert Rieg
Bloodstream infections comprise a wide variety of pathogens and clinical syndromes with considerable overlap with similar syndromes of non-bacteremic infections and quite diverse risk factors, therapeutic implications and outcomes. Yet, this heterogenous “entity” has the advantage to be pathogen-defined compared with the broad and even more heterogenous entity “sepsis”, and thus has become helpful for clinicians and epidemiologists for research and surveillance purposes. The increasing availability of population-based and large multicenter well-defined cohort studies should allow to assess with much confidence and details its burden, the significance of antimicrobial resistance, and areas of uncertainty regarding the further epidemiologic evolution and optimized treatment regimens.
In Vietnam, a country with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, health professionals in both TB-specialized and non-TB-specialized general hospitals have a high risk of acquiring TB. The aims of the present study were to clarify the difficulties in TB infection control at non-TB specialized hospitals and whether any associated risks of latent TB infection exist among health professionals in Vietnam.
We conducted a cross-sectional study in a national tertiary and general hospital of Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants were health professionals, including physicians, nurses, and other health professionals. We assessed difficulties in TB infection control by conducting a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) survey. We also collected data on the results of tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) conducted during health check-ups for hospital staff to determine whether health professionals had latent TB infection or TB disease. KAP scores were compared among health professional groups (physicians vs. nurses vs. other health professionals). Factors influencing knowledge scores were evaluated using multiple regression analysis.
A total 440 health professionals at the study site participated in the KAP survey, and we collected the results of TSTs from a total of 299 health professionals. We observed a high prevalence of latent TB infection (74.2%), especially among participants in the emergency department. Although participants had high KAP scores, some topics were less understood, such as symptoms and risks of TB, proper use of protective equipment such as N95 respirators, and preventing transmission by patients with confirmed or suspected TB. Factors influencing knowledge scores associated with TB were age, a belief that TB is the most important infectious disease, being a medical professional, having previously attended workshops or seminars, and knowing that Vietnam has a high burden of TB.
In a non-TB specialized hospital of Vietnam, we observed a risk of TB infection among health professionals and difficulties in properly controlling TB infection. Early awareness regarding patients with suspected TB, to apply proper measures and prevent transmission, and education regarding obtaining updated knowledge through scientific information are crucial to enhancing TB infection control in general hospitals of Vietnam.
Bacterial infection of the urinary tract is among the common reasons for seeking medical attention in the community. Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance of uropathogens is resulting in limited treatment options. Therefore, knowledge of the current uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility is important for better treatment of urinary tract infection.
A cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to September thirty, 2017 among students who came to Mekelle University student’s clinics with symptomatic urinary tract infection during the study period.. Mid-stream urine specimens were collected from 341individuals with suspected urinary tract infection for bacteriological identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Data on socio-demographic, clinical and risk factors were also collected using a structured questionnaire.
Among the 341 study participants, 72(21.1%) showed significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (48.6%), Coagulase-negative staphylococci (23%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.5%), and Klebsiella spp. (8.1%) were common bacterial isolates. Resistance to ampicillin (81–100%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (77–93.6%), co- trimoxazole (55 72.3%), nalidixic acid (57.4%) and tetracycline (46–55.5%) was seen by most isolates. Multidrug resistance was observed in 73% of the bacterial isolates, and 25.5% of the Gram-negative isolates were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Being female, a history of urinary tract infection, a history of catheterization and frequent sexual activity were found to be statistically associated with urinary tract infection.
Urinary tract infection is a problem among university students with a prevalence of 21.1%. All isolates have developed resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics. Therefore, health education on the transmission and causes of urinary tract infection are recommended for the students.
Despite the numerous intervention programmes, HIV still remains a public health concern with a high impact in Sub-Saharan Africa region. Oxidative stress has been documented in HIV subjects as viral infection promotes prolonged activation of immune system, hence, production of increased reactive oxygen species.
We studied 180 subjects. Of these, 60 were HIV-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 40 were ART naïve HIV-infected and 80 were apparent healthy non HIV-infected subjects. The complete blood count was performed by automated hemoanalyzer, the CD4+ T-cell count was performed by cyflow cytometer, while the antioxidant assay was performed using ELISA technique.
All evaluated parameters; glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), CD4+ T-cell count, haemoglobin (Hb), total white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count were significantly (P
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a lethal disease which has been changing significantly over the past decades; however, information about IE in China remains scarce. This study surveyed the changes in clinical characteristics of IE at a tertiary hospital in south China over a period of nearly 18 years.
Medical records with IE patients consecutively hospitalized between June 2001 and June 2018 were selected from the electronic medical records system in Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University. Data were divided by admission time into two groups equally: early-period group, June 2001 to December 2009 and later-period group, January 2010 to July 2018.
A Total of 313 IE patients were included in our study. Compared with the early-period group, patients in the later-period group included fewer intravenous drug users (IVDUs), older age at onset, reduced development of pulmonary embolism, less renal dysfunction, decreased proportion of Staphylococcus aureus infection and fewer vegetations observed in the right heart by echocardiography. The later-period group also showed a higher proportion of ischemic strokes and higher proportion of positive microbiological findings compared with the early-period group. The in-hospital mortality remained about the same between the two periods and the multivariate analysis identified intravenous drug addicted, prosthetic valve endocarditis, hemorrhagic stroke, acute congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, left-sided endocarditis, early surgical as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.
Our study demonstrated a dramatic change in the profile of IE over a period of 18 years at a tertiary hospital in south China and presented several independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The geographic variations observed in our study will be of important value to profile the clinical feature of China and offer the reference for clinical decisions in our region.
In the pre-vaccine era, invasive disease with Haemophilus influenzae, type b (Hib) commonly presented with osteoarticular involvement. Haemophilus influenzae, type a (Hia) sepsis is a rare but emerging problem in recent years. Here, we report a case of sepsis with concomitant osteoarthritis due to Hia that was the presenting infectious disease manifestation of isolated asplenia in a young child. This unique observation adds to our understanding of sepsis and asplenia in children.
A five-year-old girl developed acute Hia bacteremia and sepsis. The patient developed arthritis shortly after onset of septic shock. Arthrocentesis was culture-negative, but given the difficulty differentiating between septic and reactive arthritis, prolonged antibiotic administration was provided for presumed osteoarticular infection, and the patient had an uneventful recovery. The finding of Howell-Jolly bodies on blood smear at the time of presentation prompted an evaluation that revealed isolated congenital asplenia. Evaluation for known genetic causes of asplenia was unrevealing. Investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health revealed an emergence of Hia infections over the past 5 years, particularly in children with an American Indian background.
Hia is an important pathogen in the differential diagnosis of invasive bacterial infections in children and shares overlap in clinical presentation and pathogenesis with Hib. Invasive Hia disease can be a presenting manifestation of asplenia in children. Hia is an emerging pathogen in American Indian children.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important pathogen that causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). After an EHEC outbreak involving uncooked beef, serving raw beef liver dishes at restaurants was completely banned starting on July 1, 2012 in Japan. However, its long-term associations with the incidence rates of EHEC infections have never been assessed by formal interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA).
A retrospective cohort study to assess the impact of banning raw beef liver provision at restaurants was conducted. The weekly incidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic EHEC infections, the incidence of HUS, and deaths were extracted from the national reportable diseases database from January 2008 to December 2017. ITSA was conducted to evaluate the impact of banning raw beef liver from July 2012. To account for a potential simultaneous external effect, the additional regulation on raw beef red meat handling (implemented in May 2011) and the seasonality were also incorporated into the model.
There were 32,179 asymptomatic and 21,250 symptomatic EHEC infections (including 717 HUS cases and 26 deaths) reported during the study period. During the pre-intervention period (before week 27, 2012), there were 0.45 asymptomatic EHEC infections per million-persons per week. The mean post-intervention asymptomatic EHEC infections were 0.51 per million-persons per week. ITSA revealed no baseline trend or change in the intercept and trend (0.002 infections per million-persons per week, 95% Confidence interval − 0.03-0.04, p = 0.93, 1.22, CI -1.96-4.39, p = 0.45, and − 0.006, CI -0.003-0.02, p = 0.68, respectively). For symptomatic EHEC infections, there were 0.30 cases per million per week during the pre-intervention period, and it became 0.33 cases per million per week after the intervention. Time series modeling again did not show a significant baseline trend or changes in the intercept and trend (0.0005, CI -0.02-0.02, p = 0.96, 0.69, CI -1.75-3.12, p = 0.58, and − 0.003, CI -0.02-0.01, p = 0.76, respectively).
We did not find a statistically significant reduction in the overall incidence rates of both asymptomatic and symptomatic EHEC infections in Japan after implementing measures, including a ban on serving raw beef liver dishes in the restaurant industry.
Osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis is a rare cause of pelvic pain after delivery, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The clinical context is the same as the more common diastasis of the pubic bone, but the presence of intense local pain in association with fever should prompt further clinical work-up based on blood chemistry, microbiology and diagnostic imaging. We report the first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis of the pubic symphysis occuring after the delivery.
A 39-year-old woman developed pain over the pubic bone 12 h after the delivery. After 72 h fever rose and laboratory examination showed elevation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels. Pelvic x-rays and magnetic resonance showed pubic diastasis, joint effusion, tiny irregularities of articular surfaces and, severe bone edema. The patient was started on broad spectrum intravenous (IV) antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactam) and then replaced to IV vancomycin and oral levofloxacin based on antibiogram result. She was then discharged with oral antibiotic therapy and fully recovered.
Due to the rarity of this disease, we compared our experience with the other cases of osteomyelitis of pubic symphysis occurring in peri-postpartum reported in the literature. The course of osteomyelitis was favourable in all patients, and only in one case an additional orthopedic procedure for symphysis fixation was necessary. Knowledge of this rare condition is important to enable prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause poor outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients; moreover, it is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the general population. Accordingly, anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroepidemiology may be useful in identifying the risk of post-SOT HCMV infection or disease as well as immunosenescence or CVD. However, HCMV seroprevalence and titre have not been fully evaluated with regard to age distribution or compared between SOT recipients and healthy individuals in South Korea.
We retrospectively retrieved all unduplicated anti-HCMV IgG results of individuals aged > 1 year evaluated between July 2006 and November 2017 at Severance Hospital in Seoul. The cohort, excluding haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and subjects with equivocal values, included 2184 SOT recipients and 3015 healthy transplant donors. All IgG results in the SOT recipients were measured during the pre-transplant period.
The overall IgG seroprevalence and titres were significantly higher among SOT recipients than among healthy donors (98.7% vs. 88.6%, p
Localized `and disseminated Nocardia farcinica infection is frequently reported in immunocompromised patients. However, orbital nocardiosis is rare, and, to our knowledge, traumatic orbital nocardiosis that affects the brain has never been described. Here, we report a case of traumatic orbital and intracranial N. farcinica infection in an immunocompetent patient.
A 35-year-old man, who was immunocompetent, to the best of our knowledge and as per the absence of immunodeficiency symptoms, with orbital trauma caused by the penetration of a rotten bamboo branch developed lesions in the orbit and brain. Subsequently, he underwent debridement and received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, but orbital infection occurred, with drainage of pus through the sinus tract. The patient then underwent endoscope-assisted local debridement. Bacterial culture of the sinusal pus was positive for N. farcinica, and a combined intracranial infection had developed. The disease was treated effectively by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ceftriaxone sodium therapy. The patient remained infection free and without complications at the 14-month follow-up.
Traumatic orbital and intracranial infection caused by N. farcinica is a rare infectious disease, and atypical presentations easily lead to misdiagnosis. When a patient presents with an atypical orbital infection that is unresponsive to empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics, along with suspicious neurologic symptoms, Nocardia infection should be considered. Identification by bacterial culture is the gold standard. Complete local debridement and appropriate antibiotic treatment are keys to the treatment of the disease.
Klebsiella variicola and K. quasipneumoniae are new species distinguishable from K. pneumoniae but they are often misidentified as K. pneumoniae in clinical settings. Several reports have demonstrated the possibility that the virulence factors and clinical features differ among these three phylogroups. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether there were differences in clinical and bacterial features between the three phylogroups isolated from patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Japan.
Isolates from all patients with BSIs caused by K. pneumoniae admitted to two hospitals between 2014 and 2017 (n = 119) were included in the study. Bacterial species were identified via sequence analysis, and their virulence factors and serotypes were analyzed via multiplex PCR results. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records.
Of the 119 isolates, 21 (17.7%) were identified as K. variicola and 11 (9.2%) as K. quasipneumoniae; K1 serotype was found in 16 (13.4%), and K2 serotype in 13 (10.9%). Significant differences in the prevalence of rmpA, iutA, ybtS, entB and kfu (p
A large proportion of people who inject drugs (PWID) living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have not been treated. It is unknown whether inclusion of HCV diagnostics and treatment into integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics will improve uptake and outcome of HCV treatment in PWID. The aim is to assess the efficacy of integrating HCV treatment to PWID and this paper will present the protocol for an ongoing trial.
INTRO-HCV is a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial that will compare the efficacy of integrated treatment of HCV in PWID with the current standard treatment. Integrated treatment includes testing for HCV, assessing liver fibrosis with transient elastography, counselling, treatment delivery, follow-up and evaluation provided by integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics. Most of these clinics for PWID provide opioid agonist therapy while some clinics provide low-threshold care without opioid agonist therapy. Standard care involves referral to further diagnostics, treatment and treatment follow-up given in a hospital outpatient clinic with equivalent medications. The differences between the delivery platforms in the two trial arms involve use of a drop-in approach rather than specific appointment times, no need for additional travelling, less blood samples taken during treatment, and treatment given from already known clinicians. The trial will recruit approximately 200 HCV infected individuals in Bergen and Stavanger, Norway. The primary outcomes are time to treatment initiation and sustained virologic response, defined as undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, treatment adherence, changes in quality of life, fatigue and psychological well-being, changes in drug use, infection related risk behaviour, and risk of reinfection. The target group is PWID with HCV diagnosed receiving treatment and care within clinics for PWID.
This study will inform on the effects of an integrated treatment program for HCV in clinics for PWID compared to standard care aiming to increase access to treatment and improving treatment adherence. If the integrated treatment model is found to be safe and efficacious, it can be considered for further scale-up.
Monroe A, Happ L, Rayeed N, et al.
AbstractBackgroundUsing the results of a site assessment survey performed at clinics throughout Washington DC, we studied the impact of clinic-level factors on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and viral suppression (VS) among people living with HIV (PLWH).MethodsThis was a retrospective analysis from the DC Cohort, an observational clinical cohort of PLWH from 2011-2018. We included data from PLWH not on ART and not virally suppressed at enrollment. Outcomes were ART initiation and VS (HIV RNA
Balzer L, Havlir D, Kamya M, et al.
AbstractBackgroundIn generalized epidemic settings, strategies are needed to prioritize individuals at higher risk of HIV acquisition for prevention services such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. We used population-level HIV testing data from rural Kenya and Uganda to construct HIV risk scores and assessed their ability to identify seroconversions.MethodsBetween 2013-2017, >75% of residents in 16 communities in the SEARCH Study tested annually for HIV. In this population, we evaluated three strategies for using demographic factors to predict the one-year risk of HIV seroconversion: (1) membership in ≥1 known “Risk Group” (e.g., young woman or HIV-infected spouse); (2) a “Model-based” risk score constructed with logistic regression; (3) a “Machine Learning” risk score constructed with the Super Learner algorithm. We hypothesized Machine Learning would identify high-risk individuals more efficiently (fewer persons targeted for a fixed sensitivity) and with higher sensitivity (for a fixed number of persons targeted) than either other approach.Results75,558 HIV-negative persons contributed 166,723 person-years of follow-up; 519 seroconverted. Machine Learning improved efficiency; to achieve a fixed sensitivity of 50%, the Risk Group strategy targeted 42% of the population, Model-based 27%, and Machine Learning 18%. Machine Learning also improved sensitivity; with an upper limit of 45% targeted, the Risk Group strategy correctly classified 58% of seroconversions, Model-based 68%, and Machine Learning 78%.ConclusionsMachine learning improved classification of individuals at risk of HIV acquisition compared to a model-based approach or reliance on known risk groups, and could inform targeting of prevention strategies in generalized epidemic settings.
L. Leibovici, L. Scudeller, A. Kalil, A. Huttner, M.M.G. Leeflang, J. Bielicki, F. Allerberger, M. Paul, J. Rodríguez-Baño
In the last 5 years we have published in CMI more than 300 articles that used and reported multivariable models. The reporting was heterogeneous; that is why the present Editorial Note aims to provide guidance on how to report on the derivation of multivariable regression models and on the final model in CMI articles.
Nino Khetsuriani, Ketevan Sanadze, Mariam Abuladze, Nana Tatishvili
To describe cases and estimate subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) risk following large-sale measles outbreaks in Georgia. SSPE, a rare, fatal late complication of measles, is often overlooked in assessments focused on the acute illness. Georgia had 8,377 and 11,495 reported measles cases during the 2004-2005 and 2013-2015 outbreaks, respectively, but SSPE burden has not been assessed.
T. Kaewarpai, P. Ekchariyawat, R. Phunpang, S.W. Wright, A. Dulsuk, B. Moonmueangsan, C. Morakot, E. Thiansukhon, N.P.J. Day, G. Lertmemongkolchai, T.E. West, N. Chantratita
To characterize plasma cytokine responses in melioidosis and analyse their association with mortality.
In recent years, the number of infective endocarditis (IE) cases associated with injection drug use has increased. Clinical guidelines suggest deferring surgery for IE in people who inject drugs (PWID) due to a concern for worse outcomes in comparison to non-injectors (non-PWID). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of long-term outcomes in PWID who underwent cardiac surgery and compared these outcomes to non-PWID.
We systematically searched for studies reported between 1965 and 2018. We used an algorithm to estimate individual patient data (eIPD) from Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves and combined it with published individual patient data (IPD) to analyze long-term outcomes after cardiac surgery for IE in PWID. Our primary outcome was survival. Secondary outcomes were reoperation and mortality at 30-days, one-, five-, and 10-years. Random effects Cox regression was used for estimating survival.
We included 27 studies in the systematic review and 19 provided data (KM or IPD) for the meta-analysis. PWID were younger and more likely to have S. aureus than non-PWID. Survival at 30-days, one-, five-, and 10-years was 94.3, 81.0, 62.1, and 56.6% in PWID, respectively; and 96.4, 85.0, 70.3, and 63.4% in non-PWID. PWID had 47% greater hazard of death (HR 1.47, 95% CI, 1.05–2.05) and more than twice the hazard of reoperation (HR 2.37, 95% CI, 1.25–4.50) than non-PWID.
PWID had shorter survival that non-PWID. Implementing evidence-based interventions and testing new modalities are urgently needed to improve outcomes in PWID after cardiac surgery.
I. Griffin et al.
L. Neill et al.
O. Paccoud et al.
A. Wang et al.
A. P. Borsoi et al.
Northern European Conference on Travel Medicine (NECTM) 2020
Mødet udskudt på grund af COVID-19
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18.06.2020 - 22.06.2020
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6.07.2020 - 10.07.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
27.08.2020 - 29.08.2020
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Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
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