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Mitchell N. Lefebvre, John T. Harty
Each year over 200 million malaria infections occur, with over 400 000 associated deaths. Vaccines formed with attenuated whole parasites can induce protective memory CD8 T cell responses against liver-stage malaria; however, widespread administration of such vaccines is logistically challenging. Recent scientific findings are delineating how protective memory CD8 T cell populations are primed and maintained and how such cells mediate immunity to liver-stage malaria. Memory CD8 T cell anatomic localization and expression of transcription factors, homing receptors, and signaling molecules appear to play integral roles in protective immunity to liver-stage malaria.
Transcriptional profiling of the human immune response to malaria has been used to identify diagnostic markers, understand the pathogenicity of severe disease and dissect the mechanisms of naturally acquired immunity (NAI). However, interpreting this body of work is difficult given considerable variation in study design, definition of disease, patient selection and methodology employed. This work details a comprehensive review of gene expression profiling (GEP) of the human immune response to malaria to determine how this technology has been applied to date, instances where this has advanced understanding of NAI and the extent of variability in methodology between studies to allow informed comparison of data and interpretation of results.
Datasets from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) including the search terms; ‘plasmodium’ or ‘malaria’ or ‘sporozoite’ or ‘merozoite’ or ‘gametocyte’ and ‘Homo sapiens’ were identified and publications analysed. Datasets of gene expression changes in relation to malaria vaccines were excluded.
Twenty-three GEO datasets and 25 related publications were included in the final review. All datasets related to Plasmodium falciparum infection, except two that related to Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of datasets included samples from individuals infected with malaria ‘naturally’ in the field (n = 13, 57%), however some related to controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies (n = 6, 26%), or cells stimulated with Plasmodium in vitro (n = 6, 26%). The majority of studies examined gene expression changes relating to the blood stage of the parasite. Significant heterogeneity between datasets was identified in terms of study design, sample type, platform used and method of analysis. Seven datasets specifically investigated transcriptional changes associated with NAI to malaria, with evidence supporting suppression of the innate pro-inflammatory response as an important mechanism for this in the majority of these studies. However, further interpretation of this body of work was limited by heterogeneity between studies and small sample sizes.
GEP in malaria is a potentially powerful tool, but to date studies have been hypothesis generating with small sample sizes and widely varying methodology. As CHMI studies are increasingly performed in endemic settings, there will be growing opportunity to use GEP to understand detailed time-course changes in host response and understand in greater detail the mechanisms of NAI.
Ioana D Olaru, Dan Kibuule, Brian Godman
Günther Fink and colleagues are to be congratulated for their analysis of antibiotic exposure among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a range of common illnesses, including cough, fever, diarrhoea, and malaria.1 The authors explain that their study1 is the first to use a robust method to comprehensively quantify cumulative antibiotic exposure among children in LMICs by obtaining nationally representative data from surveys of households and formal-sector health-care facilities.
Günther Fink, Valérie D'Acremont, Hannah H Leslie, Jessica Cohen
Between birth and age 5 years, children in LMICs are prescribed a remarkably high number of antibiotics. A large proportion of these prescriptions appear to be unnecessary. National and local efforts to reduce unnecessary prescription of antibiotics to children would likely improve both patient wellbeing (in terms of preventing side-effects) and reduce the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.
Yixiang Ng, Lily Ai Vee Chua, Lin Cui, Li Wei Ang, Nancy Wen Sim Tee, Raymond Tzer Pin Lin, Stefan Ma, Vernon Jian Ming Lee
Laura Nuzzolo-Shihadeh, Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Daniel Villarreal-Salinas, Alvaro Barbosa-Quintana, Rita Pineda-Sic, Eduardo Perez-Alba
Juan Manuel Cubillos-Angulo, María B. Arriaga, Mayla G.M. Melo, Elisangela C. Silva, Lucia Elena Alvarado-Arnez, Alexandre S. de Almeida, Milton O. Moraes, Adriana S.R. Moreira, Jose R. Lapa e Silva, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Timothy R. Sterling, Thomas R. Hawn, Afrânio L. Kritski, Martha M. Oliveira, Bruno B. Andrade
Narin A. Rasheed, Nawfal R. Hussein
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is considered a leading global concern in the health sector and more recently in the community (Boyle-Vavra and Daum 2007). MRSA infections can range from simple to life threating, and can include skin and soft tissue infections and sepsis (Bhatta et al. 2016; Boyle-Vavra and Daum 2007). The gene responsible for methicillin resistance is mecA, which is carried by a DNA fragment known as staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). This encodes a protein called penicillin-binding protein (PBP-2a), which inhibits the action of β-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin (Bhatta et al.
Cathryn T. Lee, Mary E. Strek
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1558-1559, December 15, 2019.
Paul D. Blanc, Carrie A. Redlich
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1559-1559, December 15, 2019.
Marianna Sockrider, Judy Corn
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page P22-P23, December 15, 2019.
Linda Nici, Sally J. Singh, Anne E. Holland, Richard L. ZuWallack
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1555-1556, December 15, 2019.
Louis-Philippe Boulet, Parameswaran Nair
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1556-1557, December 15, 2019.
Richard Beasley, James Harper, Grace Bird, Ingrid Maijers, Mark Weatherall, Ian D. Pavord
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1557-1558, December 15, 2019.
Robert P. Dickson, Gary B. Huffnagle, Kevin R. Flaherty, Eric S. White, Fernando J. Martinez, John R. Erb-Downward, Bethany B. Moore, David N. O’Dwyer
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1544-1547, December 15, 2019.
Antonella LoMauro, Chiara Mastella, Katia Alberti, Riccardo Masson, Andrea Aliverti, Giovanni Baranello
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1547-1550, December 15, 2019.
Tatyana Novoyatleva, Nabham Rai, Norbert Weissmann, Friedrich Grimminger, Hossein A. Ghofrani, Werner Seeger, Henning Gall, Ralph T. Schermuly
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1550-1554, December 15, 2019.
Valentin Prieto-Centurion, Katheryn Artis, David B. Coultas
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1554-1555, December 15, 2019.
Neil Patel, Pamela A. Lally, Florian Kipfmueller, Anna Claudia Massolo, Matias Luco, Krisa P. Van Meurs, Kevin P. Lally, Matthew T. Harting
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1522-1530, December 15, 2019.
Heather J. Zar, Lesley J. Workman, Margaretha Prins, Linda J. Bateman, Slindile P. Mbhele, Cynthia B. Whitman, Claudia M. Denkinger, Mark P. Nicol
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1531-1538, December 15, 2019.
Kimberley A. Lewis, Jessica Spence, Joanna C. Dionne, Bram Rochwerg
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1539-1541, December 15, 2019.
Yohji Matsusaka, Ichiro Kawada, Tadaki Nakahara, Yu Iwabuchi, Miho Kawaida, Masako Matsusaka, Masahiro Jinzaki
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1542-1543, December 15, 2019.
Florie Akdime, Guillaume Voiriot, Sophie Lalevée, Clarisse Blayau, Pierre Antoine Allain, Michel Djibré, Aude Gibelin, Stephane Ederhy, Muriel Fartoukh, Vincent Labbé
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page e147-e149, December 15, 2019.
Ryan M. Brown, Li Wang, Taylor D. Coston, Nathan I. Krishnan, Jonathan D. Casey, Jonathan P. Wanderer, Jesse M. Ehrenfeld, Daniel W. Byrne, Joanna L. Stollings, Edward D. Siew, Gordon R. Bernard, Wesley H. Self, Todd W. Rice, Matthew W. Semler
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1487-1495, December 15, 2019.
Robin R. Deterding, Brandie D. Wagner, J. Kirk Harris, Emily M. DeBoer
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1496-1504, December 15, 2019.
Jürgen Behr, Martin Kolb, Jin Woo Song, Fabrizio Luppi, Birgit Schinzel, Susanne Stowasser, Manuel Quaresma, Fernando J. Martinez
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1505-1512, December 15, 2019.
Jason Ackrivo, John Hansen-Flaschen, Bobby L. Jones, E. Paul Wileyto, Richard J. Schwab, Lauren Elman, Steven M. Kawut
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1513-1521, December 15, 2019.
Gail G. Weinmann, Thomas L. Croxton, Neil R. Aggarwal, Michael J. Twery, James P. Kiley
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1466-1471, December 15, 2019.
Niall C. Filewod, Warren L. Lee
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1472-1476, December 15, 2019.
Dirk-Jan Slebos, Pallav L. Shah, Felix J. F. Herth, Christophe Pison, Christian Schumann, Ralf-Harto Hübner, Peter I. Bonta, Romain Kessler, Wolfgang Gesierich, Kaid Darwiche, Bernd Lamprecht, Thierry Perez, Dirk Skowasch, Gaetan Deslee, Armelle Marceau, Frank C. Sciurba, Reinoud Gosens, Jorine E. Hartman, Karthi Srikanthan, Marina Duller, Arschang Valipour
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1477-1486, December 15, 2019.
H. Simon Schaaf, Ben J. Marais
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 200, Issue 12, Page 1464-1465, December 15, 2019.
Specialespecifikt kursus om immundefekt og feber af ukendt årsag
28.01.2020 - 29.01.2020
International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) 2020
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
20.02.2020 - 23.02.2020
Dansk Selskab for Intern Medicin (DSIM) årsmøde og overrækkelse af Hagedorn prisen 2020
Novo Nordisk Fonden, Tuborg Havnevej 19, 2900 Hellerup
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2020
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
8.03.2020 - 11.03.2020
Når CROI går i fisk - med transmissioner fra CROI 2020
10.03.2020 - 11.03.2020
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Lumbalpunktur af patienter i blodfortyndende behandling (2019)
Cryptococcal meningitis and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a pediatric patient with HIV after switching to second line antiretroviral therapy: a case report
21.01.2020Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Impaired cytokine responses to live Staphylococcus epidermidis in preterm infants precede Gram-positive late-onset sepsis
21.01.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
“Rapid Start” treatment to End the (Other) Epidemic: Walking the Tight-rope without a Net
21.01.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Outcomes Associated with Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Among Persons Hospitalized for Infective Endocarditis
21.01.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Sensory nociceptive neurons contribute to host protection during enteric infection with Citrobacter rodentium
21.01.2020The Journal of Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Hvorfor synes Professor Jens Lundgren, at du bør læse"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvad synes Professor Troels Lillebæk om"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Lars Østergaard om"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Thomas Benfield artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
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