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Kraemer, M. U. G., Yang, C.-H., Gutierrez, B., Wu, C.-H., Klein, B., Pigott, D. M., Open COVID-19 Data Working Group, du Plessis, L., Faria, N. R., Li, R., Hanage, W. P., Brownstein, J. S., Layan, M., Vespignani, A., Tian, H., Dye, C., Pybus, O. G., Scarpino, S. V.
The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions have been undertaken to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was explained well by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases were still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19.
Skowronski D, Leir S, Sabaiduc S, et al.
AbstractBackgroundThe influenza A(H3N2) vaccine was updated from clade 3C.3a in 2015-16 to a clade 3C.2a strain for both 2016-17 and 2017-18. Circulating 3C.2a viruses showed considerable diversity in the hemagglutinin glycoprotein and the egg-adapted vaccine strain also bore mutations, notably T160K loss-of-glycosylation.MethodsVaccine effectiveness (VE) in 2016-17 and 2017-18 was assessed by test-negative-design, explored by A(H3N2) phylogenetic sub-cluster and prior season's vaccination history.ResultsIn 2016-17, A(H3N2) VE was 36%(95%CI=18-50%): comparable with (43%;95%CI=24-58%) or without (33%;95%CI=-16-64%) prior vaccination in 2015-16. In 2017-18,VE was 14%(95%CI=-8-31%):lower with (9%;95%CI=-18-30%) versus without (45%;95%CI=-7-71%) prior vaccination in 2016-17.ConclusionsExploring VE by phylogenetic sub-cluster and prior vaccination history reveals informative heterogeneity, but requires enhanced sample-size. Pivotal mutations conferring loss-of-glycosylation, and repeat vaccination with unchanged antigen, may be associated with reduced VE.
Fan R, Peng J, Xie Q, et al.
AbstractBackgroundSafe nucleos(t)ide analogue discontinuation in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an unmet need. We aimed to investigate whether combining HBV RNA and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) could perform satisfactorily in predicting off-treatment outcomes.MethodsThe evaluation cohort included 127 HBeAg-positive patients from a multi-centre prospective trial who stopped telbivudine-based therapy after achieving HBeAg seroconversion and HBV DNA48 weeks. As validation, 59 patients treated with entecavir or tenofovir before discontinuation were analysed.ResultsAt the end of treatment (EOT), HBV RNA and HBcrAg were significant independent predictors of the clinical relapse risk. In the evaluation cohort, no clinical relapse occurred among patients with negative HBV RNA and HBcrAg
Alli B, Burk R, Fatahzadeh M, et al.
AbstractIntroductionPeople living with HIV (PLWH) are more likely to smoke and harbor oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, putting them at higher risk for head and neck cancer. We sought to investigate the joint effects of HIV and smoking on risk of oral HPV.MethodsConsecutive PLWH (n=169) and at-risk HIV-negative individuals (n=126) were recruited from two large health centers in United States. Lifetime smoking history was collected using questionnaires. Participants provided oral rinse samples for HPV genotyping by Next-Generation Sequencing. We used multivariable logistic regression models with interaction terms for HIV to test for smoking effect on oral HPV and reported the Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction (RERI).ResultsPLWH were more likely to harbor oral HPV than HIV-negative individuals, including α (39% vs. 28%), β (73% vs. 63%), and γ-types (33% vs. 20%). HIV infection positively modified the association between smoking and detection of high-risk oral HPV with odds ratios for smoking of 3.46 [95%CI:1.01, 11.94] and 1.59 [95%CI:0.32, 8.73] among PLWH and HIV-negative individuals, respectively, and an observed RERI of 3.34 [95%CI:-1.51, 8.18]. The RERI for HPV-16 was 1.79 [95%CI:-2.57, 6.16], and 2.78 for β1-HPV [95%CI:-0.08, 5.65].ConclusionOur results show tobacco smoking as a risk factor for oral HPV among PLWH.
Yuki Y, Kurokawa S, Sato S, et al.
AbstractHuman noroviruses cause an estimated 685 million infections and 200,000 deaths annually worldwide. Although vaccines against GII.4 and GI.1 genotypes are under development, no information is available regarding vaccines or monoclonal antibodies to other noroviral genotypes. Here, we developed two variable-domain llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHHs) clones, 7C6 and 1E4, against GII.4 and GII.17 human noroviruses, respectively. Although 7C6 cross-reacted with virus-like particles (VLPs) of GII.17, GII.6, GII.3, and GII.4, it neutralized only GII.4 norovirus. In contrast, 1E4 reacted with and neutralized only GII.17 VLPs. Both VHHs blocked VLP binding to human iPSC-derived intestinal epithelial cells and carbohydrate attachment factors. Using these two VHHs, we produced a heterodimeric VHH fragment that neutralized both GII.4 and GII.17 noroviruses. Because VHH fragments are heat- and acid-stable recombinant monoclonal antibodies, the heterodimer likely will be useful for oral immunotherapy and prophylaxis against GII.4 and GII.17 noroviruses in young, elderly, or immunocompromised persons.
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
15.04.2020 - 19.04.2020
European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 2020
18.04.2020 - 21.04.2020
DSI årsmøde 2020 (aflyst)
Hindsgavl Slot, Middelfart
1.05.2020 - 2.05.2020
Kursus i rejsemedicin 2020
Statens Serum Institut
4.05.2020 - 6.05.2020
5.05.2020 - 7.05.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
A real-world evaluation of a Case-Based Reasoning algorithm to support antimicrobial prescribing decisions in acute care
4.04.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Open versus endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms
COVID-19 will not leave behind refugees and migrants
Redefining vulnerability in the era of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic in the USA: what might we expect?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Jens Lundgren artiklen"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvad tænker Professor Troels Lillebæk om"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Lars Østergaard om"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad synes Professor Thomas Benfield om"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Niels Obel artiklen"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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