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Nedenfor kan du finde abstracts fra de nyeste artikler indenfor udvalgte internationale tidsskrifter med infektionsmedicinsk relevans. Du kan under "Yderligere søgekriterier" vælge tidsskrifter, hvor langt tilbage i tiden og rækkefølge.
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Maria Gómez-Martín, Carmen Lozano, Rafael Luque, Luis Luque-Romero, Luis Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Javier Aznar-Martin
Leptospirosis, commonly known as “rat fever”, is a worldwide zoonotic illness caused by the Leptospira genus1.2. Isla Mayor is a municipality of Seville, Spain with a total population of 5,911 inhabitants, and it is surrounded by over 24,000 hectares of rice fields. Also forms part of the Doñana National Park ecosystem, an area specially protected for its biodiversity, where no chemical substances may be used which might harm this natural environment. Rat overgrowth associated with this ecosystem’s richness and limitations on the use of biocides have made Isla Mayor a perfect seedbed for Leptospira infection among wetland workers, especially rice laborer’s and collectors of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).
Understanding factors driving virological failure, including the contribution of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM), is critical to ensuring HIV treatment remains effective. We examine the contribution of drug resistance mutations for low viral suppression in HIV-positive participants in a population-based sero-prevalence survey in rural South Africa.
We conducted HIV drug resistance genotyping and ART analyte testing on dried blood spots (DBS) from HIV-positive adults participating in a 2014 survey in North West Province. Among those with virologic failure (> 5000 copies/mL), we describe frequency of DRM to protease inhibitors (PI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), report association of resistance with antiretroviral therapy (ART) status, and assess resistance to first and second line therapy. Analyses are weighted to account for sampling design.
Overall 170 DBS samples were assayed for viral load and ART analytes; 78.4% of men and 50.0% of women had evidence of virologic failure and were assessed for drug resistance, with successful sequencing of 76/107 samples. We found ≥1 DRM in 22% of participants; 47% were from samples with detectable analyte (efavirenz, nevirapine or lopinavir). Of those with DRM and detectable analyte, 60% showed high–level resistance and reduced predicted virologic response to ≥1 NRTI/NNRTI typically used in first and second-line regimens.
DRM and predicted reduced susceptibility to first and second-line regimens were common among adults with ART exposure in a rural South African population-based sample. Results underscore the importance of ongoing virologic monitoring, regimen optimization and adherence counseling to optimize durable virologic suppression.
Despite the considerable efforts made to address the issue of brucellosis worldwide, its prevalence in dairy products continues to be difficult to estimate and represents a key public health issue around the world today. The aim of the present study was to better understand the epidemiology of this disease in mainland China. We set out to investigate the yearly spatial distribution and possible hotspots of the disease.
Human brucellosis data from mainland China between 2007 and 2016 were collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. A geographic information system ArcGIS10.3 (ESRI, Redlands) was used to identify potential changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of human brucellosis in mainland China during the study period. These distributions were evaluated using three-dimensional trend analysis and spatial autocorrelation analyse. A gravity-center was used to analyse the migration track of human brucellosis.
A total of 399,578 cases of human brucellosis were reported during the 10-year study period. The monthly incidence of brucellosis in China demonstrates clear seasonality. Spring and summer are the peak seasons, while May is the peak month for brucellosis. Three-dimensional trend analysis suggests that brucellosis is on the rise from south to north, and that the epidemic situation in northern China is more severe. Between 2007 and 2016, the overall migration distance of the brucellosis incidence gravity-center was 906.43 km, and the direction was southwest. However, the overall gravity center of brucellosis was still in the northern part of China. In the global autocorrelation analysis, brucellosis in China demonstrated a non-random distribution between 2013 and 2014, with spatial autocorrelation (Z > 1.96, P
Weidemann, S., Kremer, M., Helbig, T., Hofmann, T., Stegmaier, A., Greiter, M., Thomale, R., Szameit, A.
Dissipation is a general feature of non-Hermitian systems. But rather than being an unavoidable nuisance, non-Hermiticity can be precisely controlled and, hence, used for sophisticated applications such as optical sensors with enhanced sensitivity. In our work, we implement a non-Hermitian photonic mesh lattice by tailoring the anisotropy of the inter-site coupling. The appearance of an interface results in a complete collapse of the entire eigenmode spectrum, leading to an exponential localization of all modes at the interface. As a consequence, any light field within the lattice travels toward this interface, irrespective of its shape and input position. Based on this topological phenomenon, dubbed "non-Hermitian skin effect," we demonstrate a highly efficient funnel for light.
Jain, N., Blauch, L. R., Szymanski, M. R., Das, R., Tang, S. K. Y., Yin, Y. W., Fire, A. Z.
Transcription polymerases can exhibit an unusual mode of regenerating certain RNA templates from RNA, yielding systems that can replicate and evolve with RNA as information carrier. Two classes of pathogenic RNAs (Hepatitis delta virus in animals and viroids in plants) are copied by host transcription polymerases. Using in vitro RNA replication by the transcription polymerase of T7 bacteriophage as an experimental model, we identify hundreds of new replicating RNAs, define three mechanistic hallmarks of replication (subterminal de novo initiation, RNA shape-shifting and interrupted rolling circle synthesis) and describe emergence from DNA seeds as a mechanism for the origin of novel RNA replicons. These results inform models for the origins and replication of naturally occurring RNA genetic elements and suggest a means by which diverse RNA populations could be propagated as hereditary material in cellular contexts.
Walton, R. T., Christie, K. A., Whittaker, M. N., Kleinstiver, B. P.
Manipulation of DNA by CRISPR-Cas enzymes requires the recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), limiting target site recognition to a subset of sequences. To remove this constraint, we engineered variants of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) to eliminate the NGG PAM requirement. We developed a variant named SpG capable of targeting an expanded set of NGN PAMs, and further optimized this enzyme to develop a near-PAMless SpCas9 variant named SpRY (NRN>NYN PAMs). SpRY nuclease and base-editor variants can target almost all PAMs, exhibiting robust activities on a wide range of sites with NRN PAMs in human cells and lower but substantial activity on those with NYN PAMs. Using SpG and SpRY, we generated previously inaccessible disease-relevant genetic variants, supporting the utility of high-resolution targeting across genome editing applications.
Kang, G., Taguchi, A. T., Stubbe, J., Drennan, C. L.
Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a diverse family of enzymes that are alone capable of generating 2'-deoxynucleotides de novo and are thus critical in DNA biosynthesis and repair. The nucleotide reduction reaction in all RNRs requires the generation of a transient active site thiyl radical, and in class I RNRs this process involves a long-range radical transfer between two subunits, α and β. Due to the transient subunit association, an atomic resolution structure of an active α2β2 RNR complex has been elusive. Here we use a doubly-substituted β2, E52Q/(2,3,5)-trifluorotyrosine122-β2 to trap wildtype-α2 in long-lived α2β2 complex. We report the structure of this complex by cryo-electron microscopy to 3.6-Å resolution, allowing for structural visualization of a 32-Å-long radical transfer pathway that affords RNR activity.
Kim, D., Jung, H. J., Park, I. J., Larson, B. W., Dunfield, S. P., Xiao, C., Kim, J., Tong, J., Boonmongkolras, P., Ji, S. G., Zhang, F., Pae, S. R., Kim, M., Kang, S. B., Dravid, V., Berry, J. J., Kim, J. Y., Zhu, K., Kim, D. H., Shin, B.
Maximizing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite-silicon tandem solar cells that can exceed the Shockley-Queisser single-cell limit requires a high performing, stable perovskite top cell with a wide band gap. We developed a stable perovskite solar cell with a band gap of ~1.7 electron volt that retained over 80% of its initial PCE of 20.7% after 1000 hours of continuous illumination. Anion engineering of phenethylammonium (PEA)-based two-dimensional (2D) additives was critical for controlling the structural and electrical properties of 2D passivation layers based on a PbI2-framework. The high PCE of 26.7% of a monolithic two-terminal wide gap perovskite/Si tandem solar cell was made possible by the ideal combination of spectral responses of the top and bottom cells.
Nature Medicine, Published online: 26 March 2020; doi:10.1038/d41591-020-00005-1Cancelled conferences and overpriced consumables: how can biomedical research function when the lab is out of reach?
Zhicheng Wang, Kun Tang
Nature Medicine, Published online: 26 March 2020; doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0823-6COVID-19 has affected vulnerable populations disproportionately across China and the world. Solid social and scientific evidence to tackle health inequity in the current COVID-19 pandemic is in urgent need.
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
15.04.2020 - 19.04.2020
European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 2020
18.04.2020 - 21.04.2020
DSI årsmøde 2020 (aflyst)
Hindsgavl Slot, Middelfart
1.05.2020 - 2.05.2020
Kursus i rejsemedicin 2020
Statens Serum Institut
4.05.2020 - 6.05.2020
5.05.2020 - 7.05.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
A real-world evaluation of a Case-Based Reasoning algorithm to support antimicrobial prescribing decisions in acute care
4.04.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Open versus endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms
COVID-19 will not leave behind refugees and migrants
Redefining vulnerability in the era of COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic in the USA: what might we expect?
Hvad tænker Professor Jens Lundgren om"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvad synes Professor Troels Lillebæk om"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Lars Østergaard, at du bør læse"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Niels Obel artiklen"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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