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Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Jacob Bodilsen
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease it causes, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has put healthcare and financial systems worldwide under tremendous pressure. At present, COVID-19 has afflicted millions globally and the death toll is rapidly rising. Awaiting the development of effective and safe vaccines and antiviral therapies, researchers are struggling to better understand the disease and optimise supportive treatment.
Cheng Cheng Jin, Li Zhu, Chun Gao, Sheng Zhang
To date, an outbreak of infectious diseases--coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused infection in over 2 millions people around the world.  Recent report by Fang et al showed that severe cases of COVID-19 had a prolonged time of viral RNA shedding.  Based on currently available information, the relationship between the dynamic of serum antibodies and viral replication is unclear. In this study, we investigated the correlation between serum antibodies and duration of viral RNA shedding.
In 1968, Joseph Sachs et al. published a report in the New England Journal of Medicine on urinary concentrations of nitrofurantoin after its oral administration to an unspecified number of hospitalized patients, some of whom required treatment for active urinary tract infection . Nitrofurantoin recovery in the urine appeared to be linearly related to creatinine clearance. In “uremic” patients, whose creatinine clearances were not reported, the highest nitrofurantoin concentrations reached were considered likely too low to inhibit the growth of uropathogens, although neither minimal inhibitory concentrations nor microbiological or clinical outcomes were reported.
Paraskevi C. Fragkou, Drifa Belhadi, Nathan Peiffer-Smadja, Charalampos D. Moschopoulos, François-Xavier Lescure, Hannah Janocha, Emmanouil Karofylakis, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, France Mentré, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Cédric Laouénan, Sotirios Tsiodras, ESCMID Study Group for Respiratory Viruses
As COVID-19 cases continue to rise globally, evidence from large randomised controlled trials is still lacking. Currently, numerous trials testing potential treatment and preventative options are undertaken all over the world.
Liu Y, Pang Y, Hu Z, et al.
AbstractBackgroundWe previously reported that lymphocytopenia and T cell exhaustion is notable in acute COVID19 patients, especially in aged and severe cases. Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) had been used in the treatment of viral infections as an immune response modifier for many years. However, clinical benefits and mechanism of Tα1 supplement to COVID-19 are still unclear.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 76 severe cases with COVID-19 admitted into two hospitals in Wuhan from December 2019 to March 2020. The thymus output in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from COVID-19 patients was measured by T cell receptor excision circles (TREC). The levels of T cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and Tim-3 on CD8+ T cells were detected by flow cytometry.ResultsCompared with untreated group, Tα1 treatment significantly reduces mortality of severe COVID-19 patients (11.11% vs. 30.00%, p=0.044). Tα1 timely enhances blood T cell numbers in COVID-19 patients with severe lymphocytopenia (the counts of CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells in circulation lower than 400/μL or 650/μL, respectively). Under such conditions, Tα1 also successfully restores CD8+ and CD4+ T cell numbers in aged patients. Meanwhile, Tα1 reduces PD-1 and Tim-3 expression on CD8+ T cells from severe COVID-19 patients in comparison with untreated cases. It is of note that restoration of lymphocytopenia and acute exhaustion of T cells are roughly parallel to the rise of TRECs.ConclusionsTα1 supplement significantly reduce mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with the counts of CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells in circulation lower than 400/μL or 650/μL, respectively, gain more benefits from Tα1. Tα1 reverses T cell exhaustion and recovers immune reconstitution through promoting thymus output during SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Cox A, Sulkowski M, Sugarman J.
AbstractDespite the existence of established treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV), more effective means of preventing infection, such as a vaccine, are arguably needed to help reduce substantial global morbidity and mortality. Given the expected challenges of developing such a vaccine among those at heightened risk of infection, controlled human infection studies seem to be a promising potential approach to HCV vaccine development, but they raise substantial ethical and practical concerns. In this paper, we describe some of the challenges related to the possibility of using controlled human infection studies to accelerate HCV vaccine development. The related ethical and practical concerns require further deliberation before such studies are planned and implemented.
Buckner F, McCulloch D, Atluri V, et al.
AbstractBackgroundWashington State served as the initial epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States. An understanding of the risk factors and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 may provide guidance for management.MethodsAll laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in adults admitted to an academic medical center in Seattle, WA between March 2 and March 26, 2020 were included. We evaluated individuals with and without severe disease, defined as admission to the intensive care unit or death.ResultsOne-hundred-five COVID-19 patients were hospitalized. Thirty-five percent were admitted from a senior home or skilled nursing facility. The median age was 69 years and half were women.Three or more comorbidities were present in 55% of patients, with hypertension (59%), obesity (47%), cardiovascular disease (38%) and diabetes (33%) being the most prevalent. Most (63%) had symptoms for 5 days or longer prior to admission. Only 39% had fever in the first 24 hours, whereas 41% had hypoxia at admission. Seventy-three percent of patients had lymphopenia. Of 50 samples available for additional testing, no viral coinfections were identified. Severe disease occurred in 49%. Eighteen percent of patients were placed on mechanical ventilation and the overall mortality rate was 33%.ConclusionsDuring the early days of the COVID-19 epidemic in Washington State, the disease had its greatest impact on elderly patients with medical comorbidities. We observed high rates of severe disease and mortality in our hospitalized patients.
Bojang A, Baines S, Camara B, et al.
AbstractIn a post-hoc analysis of samples from an intra-partum azithromycin randomized-clinical-trial, we found that children whose mothers had been treated with the drug had higher prevalence of macrolide resistance genes msr(A) and ermC at 28 days but not at 12 months. The two genes were positively associated in the nasopharynx
Domenico Otranto, Jairo Alfonso Mendoza-Roldan, Filipe Dantas-Torres
Thelazia callipaeda is a nematode living on the surface of the eyes of domestic and wild carnivores and lagomorphs, being transmitted by zoophilic drosophilids belonging to the genus Phortica. It also infects humans, mainly children and the elderly in poor economic settings. For a long time it has been referred to as the oriental eyeworm for its distribution in many areas of southeast Asia (i.e., from China to Indonesia) and India. Since the early 1990s it has also been reported in Europe, arising in some spots in Italy.
Nature Medicine, Published online: 22 May 2020; doi:10.1038/d41591-020-00021-1Nature Medicine summarizes all the research you need to know this week to keep on top of how science is responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Northern European Conference on Travel Medicine (NECTM) 2020
Mødet udskudt på grund af COVID-19
3.06.2020 - 5.06.2020
ASM Microbe 2020
Aflyst på grund af COVID-19
18.06.2020 - 22.06.2020
Ph.d. forsvar ved Kristina Langholz Kristensen
International AIDS Conference (AIDS) 2020
6.07.2020 - 10.07.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
27.08.2020 - 29.08.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Ratio, rate, or risk?
28.05.2020The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2
27.05.2020Science Express TOC RSS Feed
Device-Associated Menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome [Reviews]
27.05.2020CMR Current Issue
Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Its Impact in Neurological Disease [Reviews]
27.05.2020CMR Current Issue
Evaluation of World Health Organization–Recommended Hand Hygiene Formulations
27.05.2020Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
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