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Michael T. Lotze
Journal of Medical Virology, Accepted Article.
Fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails are the largest and most widespread group of all mycoses. Nannizzia nana is a relatively rare etiological factor of dermatomycosis in humans, as it usually affects animals, e.g. pigs and boars. In addition to the zoophilic nature, there are also reports of the geophilic reservoir of this dermatophyte species.
In this study, we present symptomatic infections with N. nana aetiology in humans reported recently in Poland. Interestingly, these cases had a non-specific clinical picture and occurred as skin lesions on the neck and foot as well as onychomycosis of the toenails. From the medical history, the patients had no contact with pigs.
Diagnostics of these infections was performed with a combination of classical phenotypic and molecular genomic methods. The genomic diversity of the isolates was determined using the MP-PCR method. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests against itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and naftifine hydrochloride were also performed.
Nannizzia nana has been identified as an etiological factor of dermatomycosis. Moreover, heterogeneity of the genomes was revealed for the obtained strains. In vitro activities of antifungal agents showed that isolates were susceptible to all tested drugs. The patients were treated with oral terbinafine and topical ketoconazole cream, which led to a complete recovery.
In conclusion, the cases studied by us may indicate that the infrequency of N. nana infections may not necessarily be related to the low infectivity of this fungal agent, but they are rather associated with misdiagnosis. Furthermore, N. nana reservoirs should also be sought in soil.
Maatman, Thomas K.; Jalali, Farid; Feizpour, Cyrus; Douglas, Anthony II; McGuire, Sean P.; Kinnaman, Gabriel; Hartwell, Jennifer L.; Maatman, Benjamin T.; Kreutz, Rolf P.; Kapoor, Rajat; Rahman, Omar; Zyromski, Nicholas J.; Meagher, Ashley D.
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of venous thromboembolism in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients and associate a degree of inflammatory marker elevation to venous thromboembolism development.
An observational study that identified patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 between March 12, 2020, and March 31, 2020. Data reported are those available through May 6, 2020.
A multicenter study including three Indianapolis area academic hospitals.
Two-hundred forty consecutive patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were admitted to one of three hospitals. One-hundred nine critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to the ICU were included in the analysis.
All patients received routine subcutaneous chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.
Measurements and Main Results:
The primary outcome of this study was to determine the frequency of venous thromboembolism and the degree of inflammatory and coagulation marker elevation associated with venous thromboembolism development. Descriptive statistics outlined the frequency of venous thromboembolism at any time during severe coronavirus disease 2019. Clinical course and laboratory metrics were compared between patients that developed venous thromboembolism and patients that did not develop venous thromboembolism. Hypercoagulable thromboelastography was defined as two or more hypercoagulable parameters.
One-hundred nine patients developed severe coronavirus disease 2019 requiring ICU care. The mean (± SD) age was 61 ± 16 years and 57% were male. Seventy-five patients (69%) were discharged home, 7 patients (6%) remain in the hospital, and 27 patients (25%) died. Venous thromboembolism was diagnosed in 31 patients (28%) 8 ± 7 days after hospital admission, including two patients diagnosed with venous thromboembolism at presentation to the hospital. Elevated admission D-dimer and peak D-dimer were associated with venous thromboembolism development (p < 0.05). D-dimer greater than 2,600 ng/mL predicted venous thromboembolism with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.760 (95% CI, 0.661–0.858; p < 0.0001), sensitivity of 89.7%, and specificity of 59.5%. Twelve patients (11%) had thromboelastography performed and 58% of these patients had a hypercoagulable study. The calculated coagulation index was hypercoagulable in 50% of patients with thromboelastography.
These data show that coronavirus disease 2019 results in a hypercoagulable state. Routine chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis may be inadequate in preventing venous thromboembolism in severe coronavirus disease 2019.
All authors involved in acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data. All authors involved in conception, drafting, and revision of work. All authors involved in final approval of work.
Dr. Kreutz’s institution received funding from Idorsia, and he received funding from Haemonetics. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
For information regarding this article, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © by 2020 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Petersen E, Picot S.
Sluggett J, Moldovan M, Lynn D, et al.
AbstractBackgroundUnderstanding current patterns of antibiotic use in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) is essential to inform stewardship activities, but limited utilization data exist. This study examined changes in prevalence and consumption of antibiotics in Australian RACFs between 2005–2006 and 2015–2016.MethodsThis population-based, repeated cross-sectional analysis included all long-term permanent residents of Australian RACFs between July 2005 and June 2016 who were aged ≥ 65 years. The yearly prevalence rate of antibiotic use and number of defined daily doses (DDDs) of systemic antibiotics per 1000 resident-days were determined annually from linked pharmaceutical claims data. Trends were assessed using ordinary least squares regression.ResultsThis study included 502 752 residents from 3218 RACFs, with 424.9 million resident-days analyzed. Antibiotics were dispensed on 5 608 126 occasions during the study period, of which 88% were for oral use. Cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and trimethoprim were the most commonly dispensed antibiotics. The annual prevalence of antibiotic use increased from 63.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.3%–64.4%) to 70.3% (95% CI, 69.9%–70.7%) between 2005–2006 and 2015–2016 (0.8% average annual increase, P
Abdel-hameed E, Rouster S, Kottilil S, et al.
AbstractBackgroundAccurate non-invasive biomarkers of fibrotic progression are important for HCV management, but commonly used modalities may have decreased efficacy in HIV/HCV-coinfected persons. The enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF)-index is a highly sensitive non-invasive marker of hepatic fibrosis that has had limited assessment in the HIV/HCV population. We compared ELF-index performance to FIB4 and APRI at different stages of liver fibrosis as determined by liver histology, and validated the efficacy of the three non-invasive biomarkers in HIV/HCV-coinfected versus HCV-monoinfected.MethodsThe ELF-index was determined in 147 HIV/HCV-coinfected and 98 HCV-monoinfected persons using commercial ELISA assays for the component elements of the index. Area under the receiver-operator curve was used to validate ELF and to compare its performance to liver histology as well as to other non-invasive biomarkers of liver fibrosis, FIB4 and APRI.ResultsThe ELF-index increased with histological stage of liver fibrosis and exhibited a linear relationship with Metavir score in all subjects. ELF performance was comparable between HIV/HCV and HCV with advanced liver fibrosis/ cirrhosis. In the HIV/HCV cohort ELF cut-offs of 8.45 and 9.23 predicted mild and moderate fibrosis with 85% sensitivity, while the ELF cut-off of 9.8 had the highest specificity for advanced fibrosis and the cut-off of 10.4 was 99% specific for cirrhosis. ELF performance was superior to FIB4 and APRI in all subjects regardless of HIV status.ConclusionsELF-index demonstrated excellent characteristics towards accurate prediction of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis with superior performance to APRI and FIB4 in HIV/HCV infection. Applying this non-invasive biomarker index for diagnosis of liver fibrosis and progression in HIV/HCV is warranted.
Newsum A, , Matser A, et al.
AbstractBackgroundHIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection following clearance of HCV, but risk factors specifically for reinfection have never been comprehensively assessed.MethodsUsing data from a prospective observational cohort study among HIV-positive MSM with an acute HCV infection (MOSAIC), the incidence of HCV reinfection following spontaneous clearance or successful treatment was assessed. A univariable Bayesian exponential survival model was used to identify risk factors associated with HCV reinfection.Results122 HIV-positive MSM who had a spontaneously cleared or successfully treated HCV infection between 2003 and 2017 were included. During a median follow-up of 1.4 years (interquartile range 0.5-3.8), 34 HCV reinfections were observed in 28 patients. The incidence of HCV reinfection was 11.5/100 person-years and among those with reinfection, median time to reinfection was 1.3 years (interquartile range 0.6-2.7). HCV reinfection was associated with receptive condomless anal intercourse, sharing of sex toys, group sex, anal rinsing before sex, ≥10 casual sex partners in the last 6 months, nadir CD4 cell count
Huff H, Singh A.
AbstractSARS-CoV-2 spread rapidly within months despite global public health strategies to curb transmission by testing symptomatic patients and encouraging social distancing. Here, we summarize rapidly emerging evidence highlighting transmission by asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic individuals. Viral load of asymptomatic carriers is comparable to symptomatic patients, viral shedding is highest before symptom onset suggesting high transmissibility before symptoms. Within universally tested subgroups, surprisingly high percentages of COVID-19 positive asymptomatic individuals were found. Asymptomatic transmission was reported in several clusters. A Wuhan study showed an alarming rate of intrahospital transmission, and several countries reported higher prevalence among healthcare workers than the general population. This raises concern that health workers could act as silent disease vectors. Therefore, current public health strategies relying solely on ‘symptom onset’ for infection identification need urgent reassessment. Extensive universal testing irrespective of symptoms may be considered with priority placed on groups with high frequency exposure to positive patients.
Raabe V, Lighter J, Caplan A, et al.
AbstractPediatric patients are excluded from most COVID-19 therapeutic trials. We outline a rationale for the inclusion of children in COVID-19 therapeutic trials with enabled us to include children of all ages in a therapeutic COVID-19 trial at our institution.
Gervasoni C, Meraviglia P, Cattaneo D.
Childs K, Post F, Norcross C, et al.
Decker M, Morton C, Moncayo A.
AbstractHeartland Virus is a tickborne phlebovirus first identified in Missouri in 2009; 11 human cases have been reported in the literature. Reported hallmarks of infection have included fever, malaise, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and transaminase elevations. We report one confirmed and two suspected cases and discuss implications for case-finding.
Kyunghun Min, Aaron M. Neiman, James B. Konopka
Fungal infections are on the rise due to new medical procedures that have increased the number of immune compromised patients, antibacterial antibiotics that disrupt the microbiome, and increased use of indwelling medical devices that provide sites for biofilm formation. Key to understanding the mechanisms of pathogenesis is to determine how fungal morphology impacts virulence strategies. For example, small budding cells use very different strategies to disseminate compared with long hyphal filaments.
International AIDS Conference (AIDS) 2020
6.07.2020 - 10.07.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
27.08.2020 - 29.08.2020
World Sepsis Day
Det 8. videnskabelige nationale møde om infektiøs endokarditis
International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria (ICTMM) 2020
20.09.2020 - 24.09.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Infections in Patients Colonized with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacterales – a Retrospective Cohort Study
30.07.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Zoonoses: beyond the human–animal–environment interface
Ambulatory management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: when less is more
Surgery for benign prostatic obstruction
Investing in surgery: a value proposition for African leaders
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