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Who can keep up with the explosion of papers on SARS-CoV-2? Two Boston-based HIV Fellows have done four biweekly deep dives into the COVID-19 literature. Read their highlights to date.
Two HIV research fellows are about to do their fifth biweekly deep-dive presentation on the COVID-19 literature. We asked them how they choose what to include and what they find most intriguing about SARS-CoV2.
Providing antiretroviral treatment to women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection before, during, and after pregnancy is critical for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improving child survival.
Aida González-Díaz, Miguel P Machado, Jordi Càmara, José Yuste, Emmanuelle Varon, Miriam Domenech, María Del Grosso, José María Marimón, Emilia Cercenado, Nieves Larrosa, María Dolores Quesada, Dionisia Fontanals, Assiya El-Mniai, Meritxell Cubero, João A Carriço, Sara Martí, Mario Ramirez and Carmen Ardanuy
The successful pneumococcal clone Spain9V-ST156 (PMEN3) is usually associated with vaccine serotypes 9V and 14.
Our objective was to analyse the increase of a serotype 11A variant of PMEN3 as cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Spain and its spread in south-western Europe.
We conducted a prospective multicentre study of adult IPD in Spain (2008–16). Furthermore, a subset of 61 penicillin-resistant serotype 11A isolates from France, Italy, Portugal and Spain were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS) and compared with 238 genomes from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA).
Although the incidence of serotype 11A in IPD was stable, a clonal shift was detected from CC62 (penicillin-susceptible) to CC156 (penicillin-resistant). By WGS, three major 11A-CC156 lineages were identified, linked to ST156 (n = 5 isolates; France, Italy and Portugal), ST166 (n = 4 isolates; France and Portugal) and ST838/6521 (n = 52 isolates; France, Portugal and Spain). Acquisition of the 11A capsule allowed to escape vaccine effect. AP200 (11A-ST62) was the donor for ST156 and ST838/6521 but not for ST166. In-depth analysis of ST838/6521 lineage showed two multi-fragment recombination events including four and seven fragments from an 11A-ST62 and an NT-ST344 representative, respectively.
The increase in penicillin-resistant serotype 11A IPD in Spain was linked to the spread of a vaccine escape PMEN3 recombinant clone. Several recombination events were observed in PMEN3 acquiring an 11A capsule. The most successful 11A-PMEN3 lineage spreading in south-western Europe appeared after two multi-fragment recombination events with representatives of two major pneumococcal clones (11A-ST62 and NT-ST344).
This report describes clinical considerations for prescribing preexposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus prevention among adolescents.
A recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outbreak among people who inject drugs in Cabell County, West Virginia, underscores the importance of HIV prevention, diagnosis, and care in communities with high rates of substance use disorder.
Hemorrhagic Fever -- IndiaA total of 5 new positive cases of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD), also known as monkey fever, have been reported in the district since [Wed 8 Apr 2020].On [Wed 8 Apr 2020], the blood samples of 4 persons tested positive for KFD; including 3 persons from Tirthahalli taluk and one from Sagar taluk [subdivisions of Shivamogga/Shimoga district] who is the father of the 4-year-old boy from Seegemakki in Sharavathi river [Sagartaluk] backwater region who was diagnosed for KFD recently. All 4
Fleur van Aar, Michelle M Kroone, Henry JC de Vries, Hannelore M Götz and Birgit HB van Benthem
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), an invasive form of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, has been reported among (mainly HIV-positive) men who have sex with men (MSM) since 2003. In the Netherlands, LGV testing recommendations changed from selective to universal testing in 2015. Changes in tested populations could have led to incomparable LGV positivity rates over time.
We investigated LGV trends among MSM attending Centres for Sexual Health using surveillance data between 2011 and 2017.
LGV positivity was calculated among MSM tested for rectal Chlamydia infection and MSM tested specifically for LGV. With multivariable logistic regression analysis, the association between years and LGV was adjusted for testing indicators and determinants.
We included 224,194 consultations. LGV increased from 86 in 2011 to 270 in 2017. Among LGV-positives, proportions of HIV-negative and asymptomatic MSM increased from 17.4% to 45.6% and from 31.4% to 49.3%, respectively, between 2011 and 2017. Among MSM tested for rectal chlamydia, LGV positivity increased from 0.12% to 0.33% among HIV-negatives and remained stable around 2.5% among HIV-positives. Among LGV-tested MSM, LGV positivity increased from 2.1% to 5.7% among HIV-negatives and from 15.1% to 22.1% among HIV-positives. Multivariable models showed increased odds ratios and significant positive associations between years and LGV.
Although increased testing and changes in LGV incidence are difficult to disentangle, we found increasing LGV trends, especially when corrected for confounding. LGV was increasingly attributed to HIV-negative and asymptomatic MSM, among whom testing was previously limited. This stresses the importance of universal testing and continuous surveillance.
Women at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus are eligible to use all hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices.
Kyasanur Forest Disease -- IndiaA 55-year-old farmer from Udukere village in Tirthahalli [subdivision of a district] has died due to Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), also known as monkey fever, at a private hospital at Manipal in Udupi district [Karnataka] on Monday [6 Apr 2020].With this, the total number of persons who have succumbed to KFD in Shivamogga district since [1 Jan 2020] has risen to 5. The deceased was suffering from high fever, fatigue, and pain in joints. His blood samples tested positive for KFD. He was
Hemorrhagic Fever -- IndiaA total of 2 positive cases of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), also known as monkey fever, have been reported in the district [Shivamogga, Karnataka] since [Fri 3 Apr 2020].On Fri 3 Apr 2020, a 24 year old woman from Gundugadde village in Tirthahalli taluk [subdivision of a district] tested positive for KFD. She was an agriculture labourer and had been suffering from fever and aches in her joints since [30 Mar 2020]. A 34 year old farmer from Sindhuwadi village in Tirthahalli taluk tested
The Department of Defense model of human immunodeficiency virus care demonstrates that the goals of high antiretroviral therapy uptake and viral suppression can be achieved and maintained in a large health care system.
Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease and is especially deadly for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although recent trends point to modest progress towards global TB targets, more focus and commitment is needed to find, cure, and prevent TB.
Kyasanur Forest Disease -- IndiaEvery year, between November and May, the Karnataka government and its health infrastructure braces itself to respond to the Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), also known as 'monkey fever'.The Nodal Officer for KFD in Karnataka, Dr Kiran told TNM [The News Minute] on [Wed 11 Mar 2020] that 97 cases of monkey fever have been reported in the state. The worst affected region is Thirthahalli taluk in Shivamogga district, where 68 cases have been reported. Thirthahalli is infamous for its repeated
Health care associated transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rare in the United States; however, investigations of acute HIV infection in persons with recent health care exposure and no traditional risk factors should consider whether health care-associated transmission likely occurred.
Is all low-level viremia in HIV the same, and does it lead to virologic failure? Dr Sax comments on a new study.
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Tuberculosis, Other Human Disease, HIV/AIDS, Yellow Fever, Hepatitis, E. coli, Dengue, Trichinosis, Gastroenteritis, Staph, Hepatitis B, Pasteurellosis, Zika virus, Chikungunya, Hepatitis C, Pneumonia, Lassa Fever, Meningitis - Neisseria, Mycobacteria, non-TB, Taeniasis, Q Fever -- NepalGeographical variability in anticapsular IgG levels elicited by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: Implications for clinical protection?Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 92(Mar): 259-260.William P
Kyasanur Forest Disease -- IndiaKyasanur Forest disease (KFD) -- also known as monkey fever -- has claimed its 2nd victim in the state [Karnataka], a 64 year old resident of Siddapura, Uttara Kannada [district in Karnataka state] who died due to the dreaded disease [KFD] on [Sat 29 Mar 2020].The Siddapura death comes almost a month after a 58 year old woman in Sagar, Shivamogga [district in the Karnataka state], died due to the disease. BH, a resident of Malaguli in Honneghataki of Siddapura taluk, died while being moved
When taken daily, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PrEP is an important tool for preventing HIV among persons at substantial risk for HIV infection, including female sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender women, and persons who inject drugs.
T. Sonia Boender, Eline Op de Coul, Joop Arends, Maria Prins, Marc van der Valk, Jan T.M. van der Meer, Birgit van Benthem, Peter Reiss and Colette Smit
With regards to the global strategy towards eliminating viral hepatitis, reliable surveillance systems are essential to assess the national response for eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV).
We aimed to assess the completeness of the two national registries with data on acute HCV infection in people with HIV, and estimated the number of acute HCV infections among adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with HIV in the Netherlands.
In this observational study, cases of HCV infection and reinfection among adults with a positive or unknown HIV-serostatus were identified from 2003 to 2016 in two national registries: the ATHENA cohort and the National Registry for Notifiable Diseases. For 2013–2016, cases were linked, and two-way capture–recapture analysis was carried out.
During 2013–2016, there were an estimated 282 (95% confidence interval (CI): 264–301) acute HCV infections among adults with HIV. The addition of cases with an unknown HIV-serostatus increased the matches (from n = 107 to n = 129), and subsequently increased the estimated total: 330 (95%CI: 309–351). Under-reporting was estimated at 14–20%.
Under-reporting of acute HCV infection among people with HIV could partially be explained by an unknown HIV-serostatus, or by differences in HCV stage (acute or chronic) at first diagnosis. Surveillance data should ideally include both acute and chronic HCV infections, and enable to distinguish these as well as initial- and re-infections. National surveillance of acute HCV can be improved by increased notification of infections.
Coronavirus, Polio, Meningitis, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Dengue, Other Human Disease, Typhus, Hepatitis B, Chikungunya, Zika virus, Mumps, Measles, Rubella, Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Cytomegalovirus, HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Chagas, Avian Influenza, Legionnaires', Whooping Cough, Hepatitis E, Tick-borne Encephalitis, Hepatitis C -- ChinaThe continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health: the latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China.David S Hui, Esam I Azhar, Tariq A Madani, Francine Ntoumi, Richard Kock, Osman Dar, et al.Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 91(Feb): 264-266.Extra time and penalties in the polio endgame.Melinda Suchard, Oyewale Tomori, Lucille BlumbergInt J Infect Dis. 2020; 91(Feb): 252-254.Original reportsBacterial
Karoline Aebi-Popp, Fiona Mulcahy, Yvonne Gilleece and on behalf of WAVE
Locally tailored evidence-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs, especially those for blacks and African Americans in jurisdictions targeted by the Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) initiative, are critical for reducing HIV-related disparities and achieving the goals of EHE.
National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is observed each year on February 7 to highlight the continuing disproportionate impact of human immuno¬deficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on the U.S. black or African American population.
HIV/AIDS, Anthrax -- IndonesiaThe case in 2017 was handled by several government agencies, including the ministry of environment and forestry which visited the dump site for investigations. Mr Yazid Nurhuda, director of criminal enforcement of the ministry of environment and forestry, told CNA that the medical waste was dumped illegally. "It is a criminal offense as regulated in the law number 32 of 2009," he noted.Mr Anton Sardjanto, the deputy director for environmental pollution investigation at the ministry of
Victor M Corman, Olfert Landt, Marco Kaiser, Richard Molenkamp, Adam Meijer, Daniel KW Chu, Tobias Bleicker, Sebastian Brünink, Julia Schneider, Marie Luisa Schmidt, Daphne GJC Mulders, Bart L Haagmans, Bas van der Veer, Sharon van den Brink, Lisa Wijsman, Gabriel Goderski, Jean-Louis Romette, Joanna Ellis, Maria Zambon, Malik Peiris, Herman Goossens, Chantal Reusken, Marion PG Koopmans and Christian Drosten
The ongoing outbreak of the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) poses a challenge for public health laboratories as virus isolates are unavailable while there is growing evidence that the outbreak is more widespread than initially thought, and international spread through travellers does already occur.
We aimed to develop and deploy robust diagnostic methodology for use in public health laboratory settings without having virus material available.
Here we present a validated diagnostic workflow for 2019-nCoV, its design relying on close genetic relatedness of 2019-nCoV with SARS coronavirus, making use of synthetic nucleic acid technology.
The workflow reliably detects 2019-nCoV, and further discriminates 2019-nCoV from SARS-CoV. Through coordination between academic and public laboratories, we confirmed assay exclusivity based on 297 original clinical specimens containing a full spectrum of human respiratory viruses. Control material is made available through European Virus Archive – Global (EVAg), a European Union infrastructure project.
The present study demonstrates the enormous response capacity achieved through coordination of academic and public laboratories in national and European research networks.
This report says diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 remain low in the United States, and the current HIV testing approach could be updated to streamline efficiencies.
This report describes that human immunodeficiency virus partner services for transgender women must address social and structural barriers unique to this population.
Hemorrhagic Fever -- IndiaA year after a major outbreak of the disease in the region, 2 confirmed cases of Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) popularly known as 'monkey fever' have been reported in Shivamogga district of Karnataka in the past one week, [N] (55) from Hemmakki village in Theerthahalli was diagnosed with KFD on [2 Jan 2020] and [B] (18) from Sagar was diagnosed on [Tue 7 Jan 2020]. The diagnosis was confirmed after tests conducted at the Virus Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL) in Shivamogga.Both [N] and [B]
The risk for neural tube defects among pregnancies of women diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus is similar to that of the general U.S. population.
Hemorrhagic Fever -- IndiaA slew of preventive measures taken by the Department of Health and Family Welfare against Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), also known as monkey fever, has paid off as no positive cases have been reported in the State since July this year .In the KFD season of 2018-19 (from September 2018 to June 2019), 14 people died in Karnataka because of this viral infection. Of them, 12 were from Shivamogga district. Of the 440 positive cases reported during this period, 341 were from Shivamogga
Tuberculosis, Antimicrobial resistance, Other Human Disease, Pneumonia, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Q Fever, HIV/AIDS, Measles, Influenza, Dengue, Hepatitis B, Hantavirus, Gastroenteritis, Schistosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Chikungunya, Rickettsia -- SyriaFrequent testicular involvement in multibacillary leprosyHendra Gunawan, Pati Aji Achdiat, Rachel Marsella Rahardjo, Reti Hindritiani, Oki SuwarsaInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 90, January 2020, pp. 60-64Antibiotic use among hospitalized adult patients in a setting with limited laboratory infrastructure in Freetown Sierra Leone, 2017-2018Sulaiman Lakoh, Olukemi Adekanmbi, Darlinda F. Jiba, Gibrilla F. Deen, Wadzani Gashau, Stephen Sevalie, Eili Y.
Avian Influenza H5N6 -- NigeriaThe URL of the OIE report published by ProMED-mail on 29 Nov 2019, archive number http://promedmail.org/post/20191129.6802815, is no longer available. On 23 Dec 2019, Nigeria sent a new immediate notification to the OIE replacing the report sent in November.The epidemiological comments made in this latest OIE report noted: "The original report submitted [on 27 Nov 2019] for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) with OIE reference number 32493 was deleted and replaced with the report
This report estimates the proportion of U.S. adults with human immunodeficiency virus who did not adhere to medication due to cost during May 2016-June 2017.
Since 2013, progress in reducing the number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections has stalled at approximately 38,000 new infections occurring each year.
Elimination of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV by 2020 is a goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) action plan for the European Region. However, data to monitor progress towards MTCT elimination are not readily available in Germany.
We aimed to estimate the number of pregnant women with HIV and MTCT rates in Germany.
We triangulated retrospectively obtained data from: (i) healthcare reimbursement for HIV screening tests, (ii) a statutory health insurance subsample of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among pregnant women, (iii) a mathematical model of the German HIV epidemic with number, region of origin and risk factors for women of childbearing age, and (iv) the statutory anonymous HIV registry on children infected through HIV MTCT.
The number of women aged 15–49 years with HIV increased from ca 6,000 in 1993 to ca 11,000 in 2016. Risk of injecting drug use (IDU) declined from 65% in 1993 to 16% in 2016. The annual proportion of women living with HIV giving live birth increased from a mean of 1.9% during 1993 to 1998 to 4.9% in 2011 to 2015. HIV screening rates during pregnancy increased from ca 50% in 2001 to ca 90% in 2016. The HIV MTCT rate dropped from 6.8% in 2001 to 1.1% in 2016.
The population of women living with HIV in Germany shifted from predominantly IDU-associated infections to predominantly sexually acquired infections, while fertility rates more than doubled. MTCT rates dropped, mainly because of improved detection and management of HIV in pregnancy.
Charlotte O’Halloran, Greg Owen, Sara Croxford, Lee B Sims, O Noel Gill, Will Nutland and Valerie Delpech
The 2019 online pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) user survey in the United Kingdom was conducted to assess HIV PrEP access, and user characteristics. One in five respondents continued experiencing difficulties accessing PrEP; users were almost exclusively gay or bisexual men at high risk of HIV. The majority obtained PrEP through health service clinics and rated PrEP positively. High STI rates were reported among users. Renal and sexual health checks are advised for those sourcing PrEP privately.
Otilia Mårdh, Chantal Quinten, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Nicole Seguy, Masoud Dara, Andrew J Amato-Gauci, Anastasia Pharris and on behalf of the ECDC/WHO HIV Surveillance network
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among women remains an issue in the WHO European Region, with nearly 50,000 women diagnosed in 2018 and over half (54%) diagnosed late. Although new HIV diagnoses declined between 2009 and 2018 in the West of the Region, they increased in the Centre and East. Understanding the characteristics of women diagnosed with HIV can inform gender-sensitive prevention services including pre-exposure prophylaxis and early testing and linkage to care.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case-based surveillance continuously and systematically monitors HIV-positive patients throughout their clinical care until death.
Tuberculosis, Whooping Cough, Yellow Fever, Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, Antimicrobial resistance, Influenza, Chagas, Hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, Other Human Disease, Rabies -- Worldwide/UnknownPertussis in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: epidemiology and challengesUsa Thisyakorn, Terapong Tantawichien, Chule Thisyakorn, Philippe BuchyInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 86, September 2019, pp. 75-83Anti-PcrV titers in non-cystic fibrosis patients with _Pseudomonas aeruginosa_ respiratory tract infectionKentaro Nagaoka, Yu Yamashita, Hirokazu Kimura, Hiroki Kimura, Masaru Suzuki, Tatsuya Fukumoto, Kasumi Hayasaka, Mari Yoshida, Takafumi Hara,
Prevention efforts need to increase PrEP use among all MSM and target eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use.
National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is September 27, 2019.
Reducing HIV-related morbidity and mortality, and effectively eliminating HIV transmission risk, depends on use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to achieve and maintain viral load suppression (VLS)* (1,2).
During 2016, 6% of persons in the United States who received a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection had their HIV infection attributed to injection drug use (1). Injection
In February 2019, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services proposed a strategic initiative to end the human immunodeficiency (HIV) epidemic in the United States by reducing new HIV infections by 90% during 2020--2030.
An analysis of national survey data found that
National HIV Testing Day highlights the importance of testing in detecting, treating, and preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection.
A geolocation-based online human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing promotion campaign from China's largest social media platform was effective in promoting HIV testing among men who have sex with men.
From October 2016 to March 2018, both the number of persons tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the number who received a diagnosis of HIV infection using index testing increased in 20 CDC-supported countries.
Among 249 confirmed cases of hepatitis A virus infection, 4% occurred among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Northern European Conference on Travel Medicine (NECTM) 2020
Mødet udskudt på grund af COVID-19
3.06.2020 - 5.06.2020
ASM Microbe 2020
Aflyst på grund af COVID-19
18.06.2020 - 22.06.2020
Ph.d. forsvar ved Kristina Langholz Kristensen
International AIDS Conference (AIDS) 2020
6.07.2020 - 10.07.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
27.08.2020 - 29.08.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Unusual dermatomycoses caused by Nannizzia nana : the geophilic origin of human infections
1.06.2020Latest Results for Infection
Asymptomatic transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic and implications for public health strategies
28.05.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Ratio, rate, or risk?
28.05.2020The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Ethics and governance for digital disease surveillance
27.05.2020Science Express TOC RSS Feed
Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2
27.05.2020Science Express TOC RSS Feed
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Hvorfor synes Professor Niels Obel, at du bør læse"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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