Sidst opdateret 24.11.2018
Klik på linket nedenfor, tryk derefter Ctrl + C eller højreklik for at kopiere det.
Nedenfor kan du finde abstracts fra de nyeste artikler indenfor udvalgte internationale tidsskrifter med infektionsmedicinsk relevans. Du kan under "Yderligere søgekriterier" vælge tidsskrifter, hvor langt tilbage i tiden og rækkefølge.
Vælg eventuelt et eller flere søgeord til at afgrænse søgningen. Match, hvis mindst 1 ord er fundet. Benyt semikolon mellem hvert ord.
Vælg et eller flere tidsskrifter fra listen.
Alle | Ingen
Vælg hvor mange dage tilbage i tiden, der skal vælges artikler fra.
Vælg, hvordan resultaterne skal sorteres.
Ingen søgeord valgt. Opdateret for 25 dage siden.48 emner vises.
Erika M Veidis, Samuel S Myers, Amalia A Almada, Christopher D Golden, Clinicians for Planetary Health Working Group
We are rapidly changing the world around us. A growing and urbanising human population with expanding patterns of production and consumption is driving rapid global environmental change, manifested in large-scale biodiversity loss, climate change, deforestation and land degradation, resource scarcity, changing biogeochemical flows, and pollution.1 While the second half of the 20th century has seen major global health gains, the future of global health is increasingly under threat, with a growing non-communicable disease burden, expanding nutritional vulnerability, new infectious disease exposures, and susceptibility to displacement, injury, and mental health risks, all of which disproportionately threaten the poor, the young, the elderly, and future generations.
Ian S Currie, Lorna K Henderson
The shortfall between organ donors and a growing population with end-stage kidney disease has resulted in increased transplant waiting times for patients, with increased mortality as a consequence.1 Strategies to reduce this deficit include expanding the live donor pool by crossing the blood group barrier with ABO-incompatible live donor pairs. ABO-incompatible renal transplantation (ABOi-rTx) has been in practice worldwide for over three decades. Initially regarded as having similar outcomes to ABO-compatible renal transplantation (ABOc-rTx),2 more recent registry reports have suggested otherwise.
Jennifer Keiser, Jürg Utzinger
Among the 20 diseases included on the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases, the soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) are the most prevalent (>1 billion people infected) and the most burdensome (global burden of 3 million disability-adjusted life years).1,2 At the turn of the new millennium, preventive chemotherapy—the periodic administration of donated anthelmintic drugs to pre-school-age and school-age children—had been embraced as the global strategy for morbidity control of soil-transmitted helminths.
What does Europe stand for? This question hangs ominously over forthcoming elections to the European Parliament, which will take place on May 23–26, 2019. Europe confronts monumental challenges: economic stagnation, inequality, unemployment, a climate emergency, and erosion of democratic values. Elites are mistrusted, even hated, by millions of voters who feel ignored and reviled by Brussels. Europe has lost its way. As Time Magazine recently put it, Europe is “unravelling”. The influential German sociologist, Wolfgang Streeck, has called Europe a “doomed empire”.
Billy W Loo, Maximilian Diehn
One of the first questions we face when considering the therapeutic strategy for a patient with cancer is whether cure is possible. Stage is a key variable in the simple equation that summarises conventional thinking about solid cancers—metastatic equals incurable. Yet many patients with what is considered as curable cancer have occult metastases. Conversely, selected patients with metastatic cancer survive long-term after definitive therapy. Whether this observation represents a curative treatment outcome or simply good selection of patients with indolent cancer biology remains unknown.
Michael L Wilson, Rifat Atun, Kristen DeStigter, John Flanigan, Kenneth A Fleming, Susan Horton, Sabine Kleinert, Shahin Sayed, Commissioners of The Lancet Commission on diagnostics
For too long, the crucial role of diagnostics as a foundation of effective and high-quality health care has been neglected. Due to poor access, people in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and those among low-income groups in high-income countries have frequently received treatment that is initiated without the support of essential diagnostic tests. All too often, such presumptive treatment leads to poor health outcomes, wastes scarce resources on wrong treatments, fails to develop accurate epidemiological data, and contributes to development of antimicrobial resistance.
Lawrence O Gostin, Ibrahim Abubakar, Ranieri Guerra, Sabina F Rashid, Eric A Friedman, Zsuzsanna Jakab
Migration is a defining issue of our time.1 There are 1 billion migrants globally, of whom 258 million have crossed borders.2 Climate change and political instability propel ever-greater displacement, with major detriments to health.3 Policies that fail to prevent human trafficking or guarantee essential services to migrants undermine universal health coverage (UHC) and the global pledge in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to “leave no one behind”. The World Health Assembly (WHA) on May 20–28, 2019, should adopt, and robustly implement, WHO's Global Action Plan on Promoting the Health of Refugees and Migrants, 2019–2013 (GAP).
Kelly Rose-Clarke, Gracia Fellmeth
In response to the Comment by Jocalyn Clark and Richard Horton.1 about action on gender and diversity at The Lancet, as young female researchers, we would like to share our recent experience of publishing in your journal and to highlight the value of co-first authorship in promoting female academics.
Julie K Silver
I read with interest what Editors at The Lancet are doing about gender and diversity.1 Gender inequities are at odds with the ethics to which we as a health-care community ascribe. For example, professionalism is one of the six core competencies mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in the USA, and the American College of Physicians has specifically stated in its ethics manual that discrimination violates the principles of professionalism.2 Therefore, allowing workforce gender discrimination that could be addressed to persist is unethical.
In 2012, The Lancet published the results of a 7 day cohort study on mortality after surgery in Europe (Sept 22, 2012, p 1059).1 The Article contained information that was inappropriately used in Poland to promote a film, Botoks, which was watched by more than 2 million people. I am concerned that these data could still be used in similar ways.
Stanislaw Krawczyk refers to the director Patryk Vega and his film Botoks, which provides a fictional account of the experiences of individuals receiving health care in Poland. The film, which has been widely viewed, caused outrage among health-care workers in Poland, who are depicted in an extremely negative way, perhaps the most striking example being the serious sexual assault of a patient by a member of hospital staff. The film is provocative to say the least, and some consider it deliberately misleading.
Kelly Thompson, Sanne Peters, Mark Woodward, Cheryl Carcel, Robyn Norton
We read the theme issue on advancing women in science, medicine, and global health with great enthusiasm, and here we write in response to the Comment by Jocalyn Clark and Richard Horton.1 Although they set clear parameters for improving equity in the academic publishing system across all Lancet journals, it is but a first step. A systematic and mandatory approach to reporting sex and gender, which covers all papers considered for publication, is necessary, unless justified otherwise.
Xavier Puéchal, Thierry Bienvenu, Daniel Dusser
We read with great interest the comprehensive review of diffuse bronchiectasis by Patrick Flume and colleagues (Sept 8, 2018, p880).1 The authors mentioned the autoimmune diseases (most notably, rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis) that can be associated with bronchiectasis and for which causative genes have not yet been identified. We agree with their conclusion; however, as they exclusively detailed the associated genetic risk loci in inflammatory bowel diseases, we would like to add that, to our knowledge, the only family-based association study in patients with non-cystic fibrosis diffuse bronchiectasis was done in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Patrick A Flume, James D Chalmers, Kenneth N Olivier
We appreciate the interest in our review of bronchiectasis.1 We thank Xavier Puéchal and colleagues for reminding us of the association between CFTR gene variants and outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and bronchiectasis.2,3 This idea supports our suggestion that therapeutic interventions might not only target the underlying causes, but the predisposing factors that can modify progression of disease. Perhaps drugs that modulate CFTR protein function could eventually be used in the treatment of such patients.
Alexis Robert, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski
Measles elimination in Europe is in crisis. More than 80 000 confirmed cases were reported in 2018 in the 53 countries in the WHO European Region,1 the highest figure for 20 years. 14 countries in the region reported more than 500 confirmed cases, including four countries that were previously deemed to have eliminated measles (Greece, Albania, Israel, and the UK), meaning interrupted transmission for 3 years. New strategies are urgently needed to put measles elimination in Europe back on track.
The USA had an average pregnancy-related mortality (PRM) of 17·2 per 100 000 livebirths between 2011–15, according to a report from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Released May 7, the report found that approximately 700 women in the USA die each year because of pregnancy-related conditions, and 60% of maternal deaths were preventable if “one or more reasonable changes” had occurred. Causes of death varied by time prepartum and postpartum, but the most common were cardiovascular conditions.
Dementia is one of the fastest growing public health problems. According to data from the 2016 Global Burden of Disease Study, the number of people living with dementia worldwide more than doubled from 20·2 million in 1990, to 43·8 million in 2016. This number is expected to double again by 2030, with the steepest rises in low-income and middle-income countries where the effects of rapid population ageing are driving the increase in dementia. The 2015 World Alzheimer Report estimated that the annual global cost of dementia was more than US$800 billion, more than 85% of which relates to family and social costs rather than medical care.
Clear links between Formula 1 and smoking were rightly confined to history decades ago. However, it now appears that connections are developing once more. British American Tobacco (BAT) joined with McLaren in February to advertise several products including a so-called heat-not-burn, tobacco-containing device—a hybrid of the e-cigarette and the traditional cigarette. Under the branding “A Better Tomorrow”, the union is about “transforming [the] tobacco agenda, at the heart of our portfolio of potentially reduced risk products”, BAT told The Lancet on May 8.
Key player in the development of molecular biology and genetics. He was born in Germiston, South Africa, on Jan 13, 1927, and died in Singapore on April 5, 2019, aged 92 years.
Adolescence is a time of change: changes to hormones and the body, changes in the social environment, and changes to the brain and the mind. Although most young people develop into healthy adults, adolescence confers vulnerability to mental health problems. Many mental illnesses, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance use disorders, and psychosis, first appear before the age of 24 years. What is it about adolescence that increases vulnerability to mental health problems? This is a crucial question because some mental illnesses that start in adolescence persist throughout adult life, creating long-term morbidity and a substantial burden on society.
Family physician Kameron Matthews remembers meeting a college freshman with a passion for science and a near-perfect grade-point average to prove it. They met a few years ago during one of the campus bus tours Matthews organised to inspire students of colour to enter the health professions. The student's college adviser had discouraged her from becoming a doctor. “She didn't understand why”, said Matthews, who is Deputy Undersecretary for the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) Office of Community Care in Washington, DC, USA.
When I was seeking out queer culture as a young gay person in pre-internet times, the only written accounts of queer lives I found were of gay white men from western countries, such as Edmund White, Paul Monette, Quentin Crisp, and Andrew Tobias. All superb and vital reading, yet somewhat alien to my Indian context. I'd have appreciated reading Siddharth Dube's An Indefinite Sentence: A Personal History of Outlawed Love and Sex back then. Dube's rich memoir traces many issues, including his coming of age as a gay man who wrestled with and discovered his sexuality in an urban, westernised, upper-middle-class Indian context, suppressing his effeminacy in the face of phobic acquaintances, the excruciating viciousness of dorm life in an all-male boarding school, and the experience of loneliness and helplessness as a young gay person, despite his privileged background.
A provisional result from a local ballot means so-called magic mushrooms use could be decriminalised in Denver, raising questions for research and commercial use. Paul Webster reports.
Ann Danaiya Usher
Pneumococcal vaccination could become less costly for Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance, as a new, cheaper, alternative hits the market. Ann Danaiya Usher reports.
Doctors who called war a “man-made public health problem” receive jail sentences, in the latest government-led assault on the Turkish Medical Association. Sharmila Devi reports.
To the Editor A JAMA Diagnostic Test Interpretation article addressed the test characteristics of serum creatinine in critically ill patients with sepsis. The authors presented a patient with pneumonia and septic shock who developed acute kidney injury (AKI) on day 3. They discussed serum creatinine as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), noting the deficiencies of the test in patients who have received significant volume resuscitation. They noted that the biomarkers of kidney injury do not directly measure GFR, but neither does serum creatinine.
Artificial intelligence software outperformed cardiologists in identifying cardiac rhythm devices on patient x-rays, researchers recently reported in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Clinical Electrophysiology. The tool was designed to quickly identify malfunctioning pacemakers and defibrillators implanted in patients, a task currently performed by cardiologists using outdated image flowcharts.
Lee PV, Berwick D, Sinsky CA.
As part of a JAMA series on reestablishing trust in medicine, Don Berwick and colleagues review the clinical, financial, and emotional costs to physicians of regulatory burdens, and propose ways to better balance audit and trust including requirements for policy makers to experience the daily lives of clinicians, precertification systems that reduce the burden on the majority of trustworthy professionals, and payment reforms that reward value.
Kornacki M, Silversin J, Chokshi DA.
This Viewpoint reviews the sources of distrust between clinicians and the leadership of health systems they practice in, and proposes principles by which trust might be rebuilt, including competent leadership that is visible, available, and responsive; transparency and honesty in communication; and articulation of a shared mission backed by the behavior of leaders at times of stress or crisis.
How far the country—or at least the Democratic Party—has shifted “left” over the past decade is reflected in the increasing attention being given to proposals for “Medicare for all.” Although the specifics vary with individual proponents, Medicare for all is a single-payer system that would have been unimaginable as the mantra for Democrats running for president a decade ago. All of the 20 or so Democrats who are potentially seeking their party’s nomination in 2020 have embraced some form of a Medicare-for-all or other type of universal coverage program—although sometimes it depends on which of their positions is being considered.
Feld L, Glick LR, Cifu AS.
This JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis summarizes the 2018 American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) guideline on management of Crohn disease in adults.
Raber I, McCarthy CP, Yeh RW.
This Viewpoint reviews the ways health insurers are incentivizing the purchase of wearable health devices and using them to reward healthy behaviors, and discusses the potential benefits (eg, increased physical activity, improved coordination of care) and adverse consequences (eg, increased health disparities, accuracy and privacy of digital health data) of the trend.
Frat J, Coudroy R, Thille AW.
To the Editor Dr Azoulay and colleagues compared the effects of standard oxygen vs high-flow oxygen therapy on mortality of immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite a study hypothesis favoring high-flow oxygen therapy, the 28-day mortality rate was 36%, not statistically significantly different between patients treated with high-flow oxygen therapy vs standard oxygen therapy. Some of their results deserve further discussion.
Azoulay E, Chevret S, Demoule A.
In Reply Dr Frat and colleagues suggest that a high proportion of patients died without being intubated. As mentioned in the article, at randomization, 4 patients had do-not-resuscitate orders and 28 had do-not-intubate orders. All other patients, including those in time-limited trials, underwent unrestricted management for at least the first ICU days. This proportion of end-of-life decisions is in agreement with previously published studies in the same population as well as in unselected patients admitted to the ICU to receive noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure.
The Original Investigation entitled “Effect of a Workplace Wellness Program on Employee Health and Economic Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” published in the April 16, 2019, issue of JAMA, had errors in the Abstract, Figure, and Additional Contributions section. In the Abstract, the number of employees at 140 randomly selected control worksites should have been 28 937. In the Figure, the title should have been “Flow of Participants in the Trial of a Workplace Wellness Program on Employee Health and Economic Outcomes.” In addition, data were reversed in 2 boxes in the flow diagram and should have shown that for the 20 intervention worksites, 1080 employees responded to the Personal Health Assessment (survey), 1066 participated in the clinical biometrics, and 1005 were insured by Cigna, and for the 20 primary control worksites, 1020 employees responded to the Personal Health Assessment (survey), 1006 participated in the clinical biometrics, and 986 were insured by Cigna. The Additional Contributions section should have thanked Sherri Rose, PhD, Harvard Medical School, for her statistical guidance on randomization, without financial compensation, and Josephine Fisher, BA, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, for research assistance. This article has been corrected online.
Rowhani-Rahbar A, Zatzick DF, Rivara FP.
In the wake of the suicides of 2 students who survived the 2018 Parkland, Florida, mass shooting, this Viewpoint reviews evidence about the long-term adverse psychological effects of mass shootings on survivors and their families and communities, and proposes that changes in mental health service delivery may be necessary, with the ultimate goal of promoting a sense of safety and of self- and community efficacy, connectedness, and hope over a sustained period for communities exposed to gun violence.
By an act of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, session of 1917, concurrently with the United States Congress, the Harrison Narcotic Law, to all intents and purposes, was placed on the statute books of the commonwealth. Under the police power of the state, the department of health regulates the possession, etc., of certain narcotic drugs now under the control of the United States Bureau of Internal Revenue as relates to interstate commerce. But special provisos in the Pennsylvania act make it unlawful to supply the named drugs in any quantity whatsoever to known habitual users thereof, except in pursuance of a prescription of a duly licensed physician or dentist, and physicians may, under proper regulations, and after a physical examination of an addict and a report in writing, take addicts under treatment, in good faith, for the purpose of curing the habit, and not merely for the purpose of satisfying a craving for the drug.
Currently, no ovarian cancer screening test with high sensitivity and specificity exists. In a recent proof-of-concept study published in Nature Biomedical Engineering, a uniquely designed microfluidic nanochip detected low levels of ovarian cancer–associated markers in blood. If validated in large trials, the technology could be used for early detection of the cancer, which is currently diagnosed at late clinical stages in approximately 85% of patients.
Bioengineered blood vessels for hemodialysis access successfully supported blood flow and evolved into native-like blood vessels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) participating in 2 phase 2 trials, according to new findings published in Science Translational Medicine. The investigational human acellular vessels (HAVs), developed by Humacyte Inc, are also in phase 2 trials for peripheral arterial disease and vascular trauma.
Yunyongying P, Rich M, Jokela J.
To the Editor The Viewpoint by Dr Khullar and colleagues raised some important points about how organizations evaluate high-quality care. In particular, the authors highlighted a shift from individual physician performance metrics toward organizational metrics. This shift addresses one aspect of performance metrics that was lacking in early iterations: the effect of factors not directly under the control of physicians. Additionally, an estimated $15.4 billion annually is spent by US physician practices on reporting performance. However, in their closing arguments, the authors focused on physician professionalism. While we agree that professionalism is necessary, it will not address these shortcomings.
Murray SB, Heathers JA, Schauer RM, et al.
This study examined the association between RCT findings supporting or rejecting the trials’ experimental hypotheses and postpublication metrics reflecting scientific and public interest; namely, citations, Altimetric scores, and views.
Wachter RM, Murray SG, Adler-Milstein J.
Over the past decade, the percentage of hospitals with electronic health record (EHR) systems has increased from less than 10% to more than 90%, and the adoption curve in outpatient settings has been similar. This means that most clinical work in the United States and in other resource-rich countries now involves the complex interaction between clinicians and their digital tools.
Madsen KA, Krieger J, Morales X.
Some cities in the United States and countries around the world are adopting taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages as part of efforts to address the global epidemic of obesity and noncommunicable diseases and to raise revenues to address societal needs. There is compelling rationale for taxing sugar-sweetened beverages to help confront diet-related factors that contribute to the high prevalence of obesity. Sugar-sweetened beverages represent the single largest source of added dietary sugars in the United States and are associated with diabetes and other chronic health conditions. Disproportionate exposure to and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in low-income communities and people of color, driven by financial disparities and targeted advertising, contribute to poorer health outcomes in these groups.
In this Medical News article, experts discuss how various arts program can help medical students see people with dementia in a positive new light.
Auckley D, Memtsoudis S.
In the United States, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 14% of adult men and 5% of adult women, with higher rates among obese individuals and older adults. The majority of individuals with OSA remain undiagnosed. Although OSA has repeatedly been associated with unfavorable long-term cardiovascular outcomes, it is increasingly recognized that patients with OSA are at risk for adverse events in the postoperative setting. Perioperative clinicians have traditionally equated the presence of OSA with complications affecting the respiratory system, but based on a small number of mostly retrospective studies, it is unclear whether patients with unrecognized OSA are at higher risk of postoperative cardiovascular events. In addition, because most patients with OSA will be undiagnosed at the time of surgery, questions remain regarding the importance of identifying this population preoperatively, as well as of risk-stratifying individuals for clinically relevant adverse outcomes. Quality data are needed to address this issue, because the results could significantly influence clinical care pathways for patients undergoing surgery.
Sugrue LP, Desikan RS.
This Genomics and Precision Health article explains the use and interpretation of polygenic risk scores for determining disease risk and emphasizes the gap between widespread availability of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing and the near absence of evidence validating the scores in clinical populations and demonstrating associations with the ability to improve clinical outcomes via interventions.
This Medical News feature explains how 3 disparate types of animals help researchers make medical discoveries.
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Lumbalpunktur af patienter i blodfortyndende behandling (2019)
Reply to Barner and Bruno-Murtha
23.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
False-negative Results of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Rapid Testing in HIV Controllers
21.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Resistance of Influenza Virus to Antiviral Medications
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Oseltamivir resistance in severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a French multicenter observational cohort study
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Baloxavir marboxil in Japanese pediatric patients with influenza: safety and clinical and virologic outcomes
20.09.2019Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Hvad tænker Professor Thomas Benfield om"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Niels Obel, at du bør læse"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Morten Sodemann, at du bør læse"Evidence-based clinical guidelines for immigrants and refugees."?
Hvad tænker Professor Niels Obel om"Use of statins and risk of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy."?
Tilmeld dig vores nyhedsbrev og hold dig opdateret om nyt på hjemmesiden
© 2019 Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin
version: 2.5.2 ● design: C P Fischer
Side indlæst på 0,112 s