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I 2000 udgav Dansk Lungemedicinsk Selskab ”Det Nationale Tuberkuloseprogram og forslag til klinisk håndtering af TB”. Publikationen blev opdateret i 2010 af en arbejdsgruppe bestående af repræsentanter udpeget af Dansk Lungemedicinsk Selskab, Dansk Selskab for Infektionsmedicin, Dansk Pædiatrisk Selskab, Dansk Selskab for Klinisk Mikrobiologi og Statens Serum Institut.
Siden denne opdatering er der sket en række ændringer i diagnostik og behandling af tuberkulose, og der har derfor været behov for en opdatering af programmet. Publikationen er derfor igen blevet opdateret.
Målgruppen er professionelle, som beskæftiger sig med tuberkulose i deres daglige virke, men er også tænkt som opslagsværk for sundhedspersonale, som ønsker svar på spørgsmål i forbindelse med en aktuel sag.
Tuberkuloseskema kan downloades via www.infmed.dk/download?UID=3ff1d1a0947bf5c199ad7f12d80e7c644f22d14e.
Region Hovedstadens vejledning om diagnostik og behandling af tuberkulose
Region Hovedstadens vejledning om smitteopsporing
SSI's overvågning af tuberkulose i Danmark
Epi-Nyt om tuberkulose i Danmark (2016)
Sundhedsstyrelsens vejledning om forebyggelse af tuberkulose (2015)
ECDC Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring in Europe (2017)
WHO Global tuberculosis report (2017)
WHO Tuberculosis surveillance and monitoring report in Europe (2017)
WHO Towards tuberculosis elimination (2014): an action framework for low-incidence countries
WHO Latent TB Infection (2018)
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Jinglong Hou, Yu Pang, Xing Yang, Tao Chen, Huijuan Yang, Rui Yang, Lianyong Chen and Lin Xu
In this study, we report an investigation of a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak in a high school in China. Eleven students with active TB were identified. A culture-negative 17-year-old girl was considered as index case affected by pulmonary and meningeal TB. Screening results indicated latent TB in 32.8% of the students in the classroom of index case, whereas a significantly decreased prevalence of TB infection was found among students on the same floor, ranging from 1.3 to 8.2%. Genotyping revealed that all the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates belonged to Beijing spoligotype international types 1 (SIT1). In conclusion, a diagnostic delay for the culture-negative index case played an important role in the transmission of Beijing genotype MTB strain in the boarding school in Yunnan. The separate locations of classrooms and sufficient air ventilation contributed to the significant difference in proportions of TB infection between classmates and other students in this outbreak.
Ebrahim Variava, Neil Martinson, Firdaus Nabeemah
Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a leading global health problem associated with severe morbidity and a high risk of death, despite widespread availability of effective treatment for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Although drug-resistant tuberculosis had been described for many years, alarming reports over the past decade suggested neither tuberculosis transmission nor virulence was compromised by the selection of tuberculosis drug resistance.1,2 These reports, describing the prognosis of patients with extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis, galvanised global research efforts into improving treatment, which is complicated, requiring multiple drugs with a high potential for adverse events and drug–drug interactions, especially in HIV co-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Thomas J Scriba, Simon C Mendelsohn
Identification of individuals with tuberculosis for antibiotic treatment is a major component of the of WHO's End TB Strategy.1 Diagnostic tests for tuberculosis rely on detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum expectorated by a person with productive cough. The search for new sputum-independent diagnostic tests is gaining momentum, as exemplified by advances in urine-based point-of-care lipoarabinomannan lateral flow assays for use in hospitalised patients with HIV.2
Simon C Mendelsohn, Stanley Kimbung Mbandi, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba
Case-finding strategies for tuberculosis diagnosis rely on symptom screening, which is associated with poor sensitivity,1 resultant delays in diagnosis, increased patient morbidity, and ongoing transmission. There is need for a more sensitive, non-sputum-based triage test to exclude tuberculosis at the primary care level, and for mass screening in high-burden settings.2 Several blood transcriptional diagnostic signatures have been described;3 however, these were invariably discovered and validated in carefully selected case-control cohorts, inflating diagnostic accuracy.
Matthew Quaife, Rein M G J Houben, Brian Allwood, Ted Cohen, Anna K Coussens, Anthony D Harries, Sanne van Kampen, Florian M Marx, Sedona Sweeney, Robert S Wallis, Nicolas A Menzies
Case fatality rates for tuberculosis disease have fallen progressively over the past 20 years, and an estimated 54 million people have survived tuberculosis since 2000.1 More recently, there have been increasing efforts to understand the long-term implications of morbidity and mortality post tuberculosis, and a growing body of evidence describes how successful completion of treatment is unlikely to represent the end of ill health.2
Jeremiah Muhwa Chakaya, Ben Marais, Philipp du Cros, Francine Ntoumi, Sayoki Mfinanga, Nathan Kapata, Seyed Ehtesham Hasnain, Ruvandhi Nathavitharana, Alimuddin Zumla
The push to end tuberculosis as a global public health threat received a major boost from the first UN General Assembly high-level meeting on tuberculosis in 2018.1 To end tuberculosis by 2035, however, hurdles need to be overcome in detection, provision of care, and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. In 2018, an estimated 500 000 people had rifampicin-resistant (RR) tuberculosis, of whom 78% had multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis.2 Prevalence of RR or MDR tuberculosis is higher in people who have previously been treated than in those who have never had tuberculosis treatment.
Ben J Marais, Farhana Amanullah, Amita Gupta, Mercedes C Becerra, Kathryn Snow, Esther Ngadaya, Mukta Sharma, Anneke C Hesseling, Muhwa Chakaya, Alimuddin Zumla
Since tuberculosis was declared a global emergency in 1993, the introduction of the directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) and DOTS-Plus strategies has saved millions of lives, but has had little effect on transmission. Tuberculosis remains the leading infectious disease killer on the planet. Of the 7 million new tuberculosis cases notified to WHO in 2018, 58% were men, 34% were women, and 8% were children (aged
Alimuddin Zumla, Giuseppe Ippolito, Francine Ntoumi, Vicki Seyfert-Margolies, Tumaini J Nagu, Daniela Cirillo, Jeremiah Muhwa Chakaya, Ben Marais, Markus Maeurer
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis remains a major threat to global public health security, despite advances that include new tuberculosis drugs, treatment regimens, and rapid diagnostics. In 2018, there were an estimated half a million new cases of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis; 78% of these cases had MDR tuberculosis.1 Current WHO treatment recommendations for MDR tuberculosis propose a combination of anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis drugs, most of which have serious side-effects and have to be taken for 6–18 months.
Hridesh Mishra, Byron W P Reeve, Zaida Palmer, Judy Caldwell, Tania Dolby, Charissa C Naidoo, Jennifer G Jackson, Samuel G Schumacher, Claudia M Denkinger, Andreas H Diacon, Paul D van Helden, Florian M Marx, Robin M Warren, Grant Theron
In a setting with a high burden of previous tuberculosis, Ultra generated more non-actionable results and had diminished specificity compared with Xpert. In patients with recent previous tuberculosis, a quarter of Ultra-positive samples were indeterminate for rifampicin resistance and culture negative, suggesting that additional drug-resistance testing will probably be unsuccessful. Our data have implications for the handling of Ultra-positive results in patients with previous tuberculosis in high burden settings.
Zhiyi Lan, Nafees Ahmad, Parvaneh Baghaei, Linda Barkane, Andrea Benedetti, Sarah K Brode, James C M Brust, Jonathon R Campbell, Vicky Wai Lai Chang, Dennis Falzon, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Petros Isaakidis, Russell R Kempker, Maia Kipiani, Liga Kuksa, Christoph Lange, Rafael Laniado-Laborín, Payam Nahid, Denise Rodrigues, Rupak Singla, Zarir F Udwadia, Dick Menzies, The Collaborative Group for the Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data in MDR-TB treatment 2017
Fluoroquinolones, clofazimine, and bedaquiline had the lowest incidence of adverse events leading to permanent drug discontinuation, whereas second-line injectable drugs, aminosalicylic acid, and linezolid had the highest incidence. These results suggest that close monitoring of adverse events is important for patients being treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Our results also underscore the urgent need for safer and better-tolerated drugs to reduce morbidity from treatment itself for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Rishi K Gupta, Carolin T Turner, Cristina Venturini, Hanif Esmail, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Andrew Copas, Marc Lipman, Ibrahim Abubakar, Mahdad Noursadeghi
Blood transcriptional biomarkers reflect short-term risk of tuberculosis and only exceed WHO benchmarks if applied to 3–6-month intervals. Serial testing among carefully selected target groups might be required for optimal implementation of these biomarkers.
Carolin T Turner, Rishi K Gupta, Evdokia Tsaliki, Jennifer K Roe, Prasenjit Mondal, Georgina R Nyawo, Zaida Palmer, Robert F Miller, Byron WP Reeve, Grant Theron, Mahdad Noursadeghi
Selected blood transcriptional signatures met the minimum WHO benchmarks for a tuberculosis triage test but not for a confirmatory test. Further development of the signatures is warranted to investigate their possible effects on clinical and health economic outcomes as part of a triage strategy, or when used as add-on confirmatory test in conjunction with the highly sensitive Ultra test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA.
K. C. Horton et al.
Sarathy, J. P., Dartois, V.
Caseum, the central necrotic material of tuberculous lesions, is a reservoir of drug-recalcitrant persisting mycobacteria. Caseum is found in closed nodules and in open cavities connecting with an airway. Several commonly accepted characteristics of caseum were established during the preantibiotic era, when autopsies of deceased tuberculosis (TB) patients were common but methodologies were limited. These pioneering studies generated concepts such as acidic pH, low oxygen tension, and paucity of nutrients being the drivers of nonreplication and persistence in caseum. Here we review widely accepted beliefs about the caseum-specific stress factors thought to trigger the shift of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to drug tolerance. Our current state of knowledge reveals that M. tuberculosis is faced with a lipid-rich diet rather than nutrient deprivation in caseum. Variable caseum pH is seen across lesions, possibly transiently acidic in young lesions but overall near neutral in most mature lesions. Oxygen tension is low in the avascular caseum of closed nodules and high at the cavity surface, and a gradient of decreasing oxygen tension likely forms toward the cavity wall. Since caseum is largely made of infected and necrotized macrophages filled with lipid droplets, the microenvironmental conditions encountered by M. tuberculosis in foamy macrophages and in caseum bear many similarities. While there remain a few knowledge gaps, these findings constitute a solid starting point to develop high-throughput drug discovery assays that combine the right balance of oxygen tension, pH, lipid abundance, and lipid species to model the profound drug tolerance of M. tuberculosis in caseum.
Fatima Nawaf Abdulkareem, Muayad Aghali Merza, Ahmed Mohammed Salih
Tuberculosis is one of the world’s top ten causes of death and the leading cause from a single infectious agent. The recent World Health Organization (WHO) report estimated that 10 million people developed TB disease in 2018; the number remains relatively stable in recent years (World Health Organization, 2019). Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, may cause clinical symptoms and signs or it could be asymptomatic in latent form, which is known as latent TB infection (LTBI) (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2016, World Health Organization, 2018).
Hariguchi, N., Chen, X., Hayashi, Y., Kawano, Y., Fujiwara, M., Matsuba, M., Shimizu, H., Ohba, Y., Nakamura, I., Kitamoto, R., Shinohara, T., Uematsu, Y., Ishikawa, S., Itotani, M., Haraguchi, Y., Takemura, I., Matsumoto, M.
There is an urgent need for new, potent anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs with novel mechanisms of action that can be included in new regimens to shorten the treatment period for TB. After screening a library of carbostyrils, we optimized 3, 4-dihydrocarbostyril derivatives and identified OPC-167832 as having potent anti-tuberculosis activity. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the compound for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ranged from 0.00024 to 0.002 μg/mL. It had bactericidal activity against both growing and intracellular bacilli, and the frequency of spontaneous resistance for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was less than 1.91 x 10-7. It did not show antagonistic effects with other anti-TB agents in an in vitro checkerboard assay. Whole genome and targeted sequencing of resistant isolates to OPC-167832 identified the decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-oxidase (DprE1), an essential enzyme for cell wall biosynthesis, as the target of this compound, and further studies demonstrated inhibition of the DprE1 enzymatic activity by OPC-167832. In a mouse model of chronic TB, OPC-167832 showed potent bactericidal activities starting at a dose of 0.625 mg/kg. Further, it exhibited significant combination effects in 2-drug combinations with delamanid, bedaquiline, or levofloxacin. Finally, 3-4 drug regimens comprised of delamanid and OPC-167832 as the core along with bedaquiline, moxifloxacin, or linezolid showed superior efficacy in reducing bacterial burden and preventing relapse compared to the standard treatment regimen. In summary, these results suggest that OPC-167832 is a novel and potent anti-TB agent and regimens containing OPC-167832 and new or repurposed anti-TB drugs may have the potential to shorten the duration of treatment for TB.
P. Rathi et al.
Gastrointestinal tuberculosis (TB) is diagnostically challenging; therefore, many cases are treated presumptively. We aimed to describe features and outcomes of gastrointestinal TB, determine whether a clinical algorithm could distinguish TB from non-TB diagnoses, and calculate accuracy of diagnostic tests.
We conducted a prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, with suspected gastrointestinal TB. We recorded clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes. Tissue samples were submitted for histology, microscopy, culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF®. Patients were followed for up to 2 years.
Among 88 patients with suspected gastrointestinal TB, 69 were included in analyses; 52 (75%) had a final diagnosis of gastrointestinal TB; 17 had a non-TB diagnosis. People with TB were younger (42.7 versus 61.5 years, p = 0.01) and more likely to have weight loss (91% versus 64%, p = 0.03). An algorithm using age 26 g/L, platelets > 340 × 109/L and immunocompromise had good specificity (96.2%) in predicting TB, but very poor sensitivity (16.0%). GeneXpert® performed very well on gastrointestinal biopsies (sensitivity 95.7% versus 35.0% for culture against a gold standard composite case definition of confirmed TB). Most patients (79%) successfully completed treatment and no treatment failure occurred, however adverse events (21%) and mortality (13%) among TB cases were high. We found no evidence that 6 months of treatment was inferior to longer courses.
The prospective design provides important insights for clinicians managing gastrointestinal TB. We recommend wider implementation of high-performing diagnostic tests such as GeneXpert® on extra-pulmonary samples.
Thomas B, Kumar J, Chiranjeevi M, et al.
Abstract99DOTS is a cellphone-based strategy for monitoring tuberculosis medication adherence. In a sample of 597 Indian tuberculosis patients, we compared 99DOTS’ adherence assessments against results of urine isoniazid tests collected during unannounced home visits. 99DOTS had suboptimal accuracy for measuring adherence, partly due to poor patient engagement with 99DOTS.
In resource limited settings, Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients on antiretroviral treatment. Ethiopia is one of the 30 high TB burden countries. TB causes burden in healthcare system and challenge the effectiveness of HIV care. This study was to assess incidence and predictors of Tuberculosis among adults on antiretroviral therapy at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019.
Institution based retrospective follow up study was conducted among adults on ART newly enrolled from 2014 to 2018 at Debre Markos Referral Hospital. Simple random sampling technique was used to select patients chart. Data was entered to EPI- INFO version 188.8.131.52 and analyzed using Stata 14.0. Tuberculosis incidence rate was computed and described using frequency tables. Both bivariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models was fitted to identify predictors of TB.
Out of the 536 patients chart reviewed, 494 patient records were included in the analysis. A total of 62 patients developed new TB cases during the follow up period of 1000.22 Person Years (PY); which gives an overall incidence rate of 6.19 cases per 100 PY (95% CI: 4.83–7.95). The highest rate was seen within the first year of follow up. After adjustment base line Hemoglobin
Immigration from areas of high incidence is thought to have fueled the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in areas of low incidence. To reduce the risk of disease in low-incidence areas, the main countermeasure has been the screening of immigrants on arrival. This measure is based on the assumption of a prompt decline in the incidence of TB in immigrants during their first few years of residence in a country with low overall incidence. We have documented that this assumption is not true for 619 Somali immigrants reported in Denmark as having TB. The annual incidence of TB declined only gradually during the first 7 years of residence, from an initial 2,000 per 100,000 to 700 per 100,000. The decline was described by an exponential function with a half-time of 5.7 (95% confidence interval 4.0 to 9.7) years. This finding seriously challenges the adequacy of the customary practice of screening solely on arrival.
As countries approach the elimination phase of tuberculosis, specific problems and challenges emerge, due to the steadily declining incidence in the native population, the gradually increasing importance of the importation of latent tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis from other countries and the emergence of groups at particularly high risk of tuberculosis. Therefore, a Working Group of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and the Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) have developed a new framework for low incidence countries based on concepts and definitions consistent with those of previous recommendations from WHO/IUATLD Working Groups. In low-incidence countries, a broader spectrum of interventions is available and feasible, including: 1) a general approach to tuberculosis which ensures rapid detection and treatment of all the cases and prevention of unnecessary deaths; 2) an overall control strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of tuberculosis infection (risk-group management and prevention of transmission of infection in institutional settings) and 3) a tuberculosis elimination strategy aimed at reducing the prevalence of tuberculosis infection (outbreak management and provision of preventive therapy for specified groups and individuals). Government and private sector commitment towards elimination, effective case detection among symptomatic individuals together with active case finding in special groups, standard treatment of disease and infection, access to tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services, prevention (e.g. through screening and bacille Calmette-Guéria immunization in specified groups), surveillance and treatment outcome monitoring are prerequisites to implementing the policy package recommended in this new framework document.
Infliximab is a humanized antibody against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) that is used in the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Approximately 147,000 patients throughout the world have received infliximab. Excess TNF-alpha in association with tuberculosis may cause weight loss and night sweats, yet in animal models it has a protective role in the host response to tuberculosis. There is no direct evidence of a protective role of TNF-alpha in patients with tuberculosis.
Does immigration from a high-prevalence area contribute to an increased risk of tuberculosis in a low-incidence country? The tuberculosis incidence in Somalia is among the highest ever registered. Due to civil war and starvation, nearly half of all Somalis have been forced from their homes, causing significant migration to low-incidence countries. In Denmark, two-thirds of all tuberculosis patients are immigrants, half from Somalia. To determine the magnitude of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between Somalis and Danes, we analyzed DNA fingerprint patterns of isolates collected in Denmark from 1992 to 1999, comprising >97% of all culture-positive patients (n = 3,320). Of these, 763 were Somalian immigrants, 55.2% of whom shared identical DNA fingerprint patterns; 74.9% of these were most likely infected before their arrival in Denmark, 23.3% were most likely infected in Denmark by other Somalis, and 1.8% were most likely infected by Danes. In the same period, only 0.9% of all Danish tuberculosis patients were most likely infected by Somalis. The Somalian immigrants in Denmark could be distributed into 35 different clusters with possible active transmission, of which 18 were retrieved among Somalis in the Netherlands. This indicated the existence of some internationally predominant Somalian strains causing clustering less likely to represent recent transmission. In conclusion, M. tuberculosis transmission among Somalis in Denmark is limited, and transmission between Somalis and Danes is nearly nonexistent. The higher transmission rates between nationalities found in the Netherlands do not apply to the situation in Denmark and not necessarily elsewhere, since many different factors may influence the magnitude of active transmission.
The whole-genome fingerprinting technique, fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis, was applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sixty-five clinical isolates were analyzed to determine the value of FAFLP as a stand-alone genotyping technique and to compare it with the well-established IS6110 typing system. The genome sequence of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv (S. T. Cole et al., Nature 393:537-544, 1998) was used to model computer-generated informative primer combination(s), and the precision and reproducibility of FAFLP were evaluated by comparing the results of in vitro and computer-generated experiments. Multiplex FAFLP was used to increase resolving power in a predictable and systematic fashion. FAFLP analysis was broadly congruent with IS6110 typing for those strains with multiple IS6110 copies. It was also able to resolve an epidemiologically unlinked group of strains with only one copy of IS6110; up to 10% of clinical isolates may fall into this category. For certain epidemiological investigations, it was concluded that a combination of FAFLP and IS6110 typing would give higher resolution than would either alone. FAFLP data were digital, precise, reproducible, and suitable for rapid electronic dissemination, manipulation, interlaboratory comparison, and storage in national or international epidemiological databases. Because FAFLP samples and analyzes base substitution across the genome as a whole, FAFLP could generate new information about the microevolution of the M. tuberculosis complex.
To estimate the risk and prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and tuberculosis (TB) incidence, prevalence, and mortality, including disease attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for 212 countries in 1997.
The present study is based on notified cases of tuberculosis (TB) in the National tbc. register 1972-1996. A decline in Tb incidence was seen from 1972 and until the mid-1980's. Subsequently the trend has reversed due to an increasing number of TB cases in foreigners. In 1996, 60% of all cases of TB in Denmark were found in foreigners reflecting the rising number of refugees and their families arriving in Denmark from highly endemic areas, mainly Somalia. Among native Danes the TB incidence fell from 14 per 100,000 in 1972 to 4 per 100,000 in the 1980's and stabilized at this very low level. The unchanged incidence in Danes covers a falling incidence in the older and a rising incidence in the younger and middle-aged adult population, mainly in the capital. Approximately half of the cases occur in high-risk groups. The TB-epidemic is close to elimination in the indigenous Danish population, but the disease is maintained at a low level probably due to increased patient and doctor delay and resulting microepidemics primarily in high-risk populations.
Clinical Immunology Society (CIS) annual meeting 2020
Denver, Colorado, USA
2.04.2020 - 5.04.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
15.04.2020 - 19.04.2020
European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) 2020
18.04.2020 - 21.04.2020
DSI årsmøde 2020 (aflyst)
Hindsgavl Slot, Middelfart
1.05.2020 - 2.05.2020
Kursus i rejsemedicin 2020
Statens Serum Institut
4.05.2020 - 6.05.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Clinical Features and Short-term Outcomes of 102 Patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
2.04.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
A randomized clinical trial to compare P. falciparum gametocytaemia and infectivity following blood-stage or mosquito bite induced controlled malaria infection
2.04.2020The Journal of Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Vertical transmission of gut microbiome and antimicrobial resistance genes in infants exposed to antibiotics at birth
2.04.2020The Journal of Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Safeguard research in the time of COVID-19
Modelling COVID-19 transmission: from data to intervention
2.04.2020The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Hvad mener Professor Jens Lundgren om artiklen"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Troels Lillebæk artiklen"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad synes Professor Lars Østergaard om"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Niels Obel artiklen"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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