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Nedenfor kan du finde abstracts fra de nyeste artikler indenfor udvalgte internationale tidsskrifter med infektionsmedicinsk relevans. Du kan under "Yderligere søgekriterier" vælge tidsskrifter, hvor langt tilbage i tiden og rækkefølge.
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Ramirez V, Sladek J, Godinez D, et al.
AbstractNeurons are an integral component of the immune system that functions to coordinate responses to bacterial pathogens. Sensory nociceptive neurons that can detect bacterial pathogens are found throughout the body with dense innervation of the intestinal tract. Here we assessed the role of these nerves in the coordination of host defenses to Citrobacter rodentium. Selective ablation of nociceptive neurons significantly increased bacterial burden 10 days post infection and delayed pathogen clearance. Since the sensory neuropeptide CGRP regulates host-responses during infection of the skin, lung, and small intestine, we assessed the role of CGRP receptor signaling during C. rodentium infection. Although CGRP receptor blockade reduced certain pro-inflammatory gene expression, bacterial burden and Il-22 expression was unaffected. Our data highlight that sensory nociceptive neurons exert a significant host protective role during C. rodentium infection, independent of CGRP receptor signaling.
Dezanet L, Maylin S, Gabassi A, et al.
AbstractBackgroundTo describe the kinetics of hepatitis B core-related antigen (qHBcrAg) and anti-hepatitis B core antibody (qAnti-HBc) during tenofovir (TDF)-treatment and assess their ability to predict HBeAg-seroclearance in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV).MethodsSerum qHBcrAg, qAnti-HBc and HBV-DNA were obtained at TDF-initiation and every 6-12 months. On-treatment kinetics of qHBcrAg (ΔqHBcrAg) and qAnti-HBc (ΔqAnti-HBc) were estimated using mixed-effect linear regression. Hazard ratios (HR) assessing the association between markers and HBeAg-seroclearance were calculated using proportional hazards regression and sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of marker levels in predicting HBeAg-seroclearance were assessed using time-dependent ROC curves.ResultsDuring a median 4.6 years, cumulative incidence of HBsAg-seroclearance and HBeAg-seroclearance were 3.2% (n=5/158) and 27.4% (n=26/95), respectively. ΔqHBcrAg was biphasic in HBeAg-positive (-0.051 and -0.011 log10U/mL/month during 18 months, respectively) and monophasic in HBeAg-negative patients. ΔqAnti-HBc was monophasic regardless of HBeAg-status. In HBeAg-positive patients, baseline qHBcrAg and qAnti-HBc levels were associated with HBeAg-seroclearance (adjusted-HR=0.48/log10U/mL; 95%CI=0.33-0.70 and unadjusted-HR=1.49/log10PEIU/mL; 95%CI=1.08-2.07, respectively). Cutoffs with the highest accuracy in predicting HBeAg-seroclearance at 36 months were qHBcrAg4.1 log10PEIU/mL (Se=0.42/Sp=0.81).ConclusionsIn co-infected patients undergoing TDF, qHBcrAg/qAnti-HBc could be of use in monitoring HBeAg-seroclearance.
Costantini V, Cooper E, Hardaker H, et al.
AbstractBACKGROUNDMost information on mucosal and systemic immune response to norovirus infection is derived from human challenge studies, birth cohort studies, or vaccine trials in healthy adults. However, few data are available on immune responses to norovirus in the elderly.MATERIALSTo study the mucosal and systemic immune response against norovirus, 43 long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were enrolled prospectively in 2010-2014. Baseline saliva samples were collected from 17 facilities and from cases and controls up to day 84 from 10 outbreaks as well as acute and convalescent sera.RESULTSNorovirus-specific IgA levels in baseline saliva samples were low and increased in both symptomatic patients and asymptomatic shedders at day 5 after onset. ROC analysis correctly assigned prior norovirus infection in 23 (92%) of 25 participants. Cases and asymptomatic shedders showed seroconversion for IgG (80%), IgA (78%) and blockade antibodies (87%). Salivary IgA levels strongly correlated with increased convalescent serum IgA titers and blockade antibodies.CONCLUSIONSSalivary IgA levels strongly correlated with serum IgA titers and blockade antibodies and remained elevated 3 months after a norovirus outbreak. A single salivary sample collected on day 14 could be used to identify recent infection in a suspected outbreak or to monitor population salivary IgA.
McMahon J, Hoy J.
Strunk T, Hibbert J, Doherty D, et al.
AbstractBackgroundLate-onset sepsis (LOS) with Staphylococcus epidermidis is common in preterm infants, but the immunological mechanisms underlying heightened susceptibility are poorly understood.AimTo characterise the ontogeny of cytokine responses to live S. epidermidis in preterm infants with and without subsequent Gram-positive LOS.MethodsA prospective observational cohort study of preterm infants (
medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD)HIVrapid startpersons who inject drugsendocarditis
Barocas J, Morgan J, Wang J, et al.
AbstractBackgroundEndocarditis, once predominately found in older adults, is increasingly common among younger persons who inject drugs. Untreated opioid use disorder (OUD) complicates endocarditis management. We aimed to determine if rates of overdose and rehospitalization differ between persons with OUD with endocarditis who are initiated on medications for OUD (MOUDs) within 30 days of hospital discharge and those who are not.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study using a large commercial health insurance claims database of persons 18 years and older between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016. Primary outcomes included opioid-related overdoses and 1-year all-cause rehospitalization. We calculated incidence rates for the primary outcomes and developed Cox hazards models to predict time from discharge to each primary outcome as a function of receipt of MOUDs.ResultsThe cohort included 768 individuals (mean age 39 years, 51% male). Only 5.7% of people received MOUDs in the 30 days following hospitalization. The opioid-related overdose rate among those who did receive MOUDs in the 30 days following hospitalization was lower than among those who did not (5.8 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 5.1-6.4) vs. 7.3 per 100-person years (95% CI, 7.1-7.5), respectively). The rate of one-year rehospitalization among those who received MOUDs was also lower than those who did not (162.0 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 157.4-166.6) vs 255.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 254.0-256.8), respectively). In the Cox hazards models, the receipt of MOUDs was not associated with either of the outcomes.ConclusionsMOUD receipt following endocarditis may improve important health-related outcomes in commercially-insured persons with OUD.
Kornfeld H, Sahukar S, Procter-Gray E, et al.
AbstractBackgroundDiabetes was identified as a tuberculosis (TB) risk factor mostly in retrospective studies with limited assessment of metabolic variables. The prospective Effects of Diabetes on Tuberculosis Severity study compared adults with pulmonary TB in Chennai, India, who were classified as having diabetes or normal glucose tolerance at enrollment.MethodsBaseline TB severity, sputum conversion, and treatment outcomes (cure, failure, death, or lost) were compared between groups with respect to glycemic status and body mass index (BMI).ResultsThe cohort of 389 participants included 256 with diabetes and 133 with normal glucose tolerance. Low BMI (
Baum U, Kulathinal S, Auranen K, et al.
AbstractBackgroundFrom 2015/16 through 2017/18, injectable, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV3) and a nasal spray, tetravalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) were used in parallel in Finland. To understand how well vaccination with each vaccine type protected children against influenza under real-life conditions, vaccine effectiveness in two-year-olds was estimated for all three seasons.MethodsEach season, a nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted. The study population comprised 60,088 children in 2015/16, 60,860 children in 2016/17 and 60,345 children in 2017/18. Laboratory-confirmed influenza was the study outcome. Seasonal influenza vaccination with either LAIV4 or IIV3 was the time-dependent exposure of interest. Vaccine effectiveness was defined as 1 minus the hazard ratio comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated children.ResultsFrom 2015/16 through 2017/18, the effectiveness of LAIV4 against influenza of any virus type was estimated at 54.2% (95% confidence interval, 32.2%–69.0%), 20.3% (-12.7% to 43.6%) and 30.5% (10.9%–45.9%); the corresponding effectiveness of IIV3 was 77.2% (48.9%–89.8%), 24.5% (-29.8% to 56.1%) and -20.1% (-61.5% to 10.7%). Neither of the influenza vaccines clearly excelled in protecting children. The LAIV4 effectiveness against type B was greater than against type A and greater than the IIV3 effectiveness against type B.ConclusionsTo understand how influenza vaccines could be improved, vaccine effectiveness must be analyzed by vaccine and virus type. Effectiveness estimates expressing also overall protection levels are needed to guide individual and programmatic decision-making processes. Supported by this analysis, the vaccination program in Finland now recommends LAIV4 and injectable, tetravalent inactivated influenza vaccines replacing IIV3.
Lewnard J, Whittles L, Rick A, et al.
AbstractBackgroundPharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus (GAS) represents a major cause of outpatient visits and antibiotic use in the United States. A leading vaccine candidate targets 30 of the >200 emm types of GAS. We aimed to assess natural protection conferred by GAS against respiratory symptoms.MethodsIn a 5-year study among school-aged children in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, pharyngeal cultures were obtained from children at 2-week intervals, and active surveillance was conducted for respiratory illnesses. We assessed protection via the relative odds of previous detection of homologous strains (defined by field-inversion gel electrophoresis banding pattern), emm types, and emm clusters at visits where GAS was detected with symptoms, versus visits where GAS was detected without symptoms. We used a cluster bootstrap of children to adjust estimates for repeated sampling.ResultsAt visits where previously-detected GAS emm types were identified, we estimated 81.8% (95%CI: 67.1-91.7%) protection against typical pharyngitis symptoms among children re-acquiring the same strain, and 94.5% (83.5-98.6%) protection among children acquiring a distinct strain. We estimated 77.1% (33.7-96.3%) protection against typical symptoms among children acquiring partially-heterologous emm types belonging to a previously-detected emm cluster. Protection was evident after both symptomatic and asymptomatic detections of GAS. We did not identify strong evidence of protection against atypical respiratory symptoms.ConclusionsWithin a 5-year longitudinal study, previous detection of GAS emm types was associated with protection against typical symptoms when homologous strains were subsequently detected. Naturally-acquired protection against partially-heterologous types suggests emm type-based vaccines may have broader strain coverage than what has been previously assumed.
International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) 2020
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
20.02.2020 - 23.02.2020
Dansk Selskab for Intern Medicin (DSIM) årsmøde og overrækkelse af Hagedorn prisen 2020
Novo Nordisk Fonden, Tuborg Havnevej 19, 2900 Hellerup
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2020
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
8.03.2020 - 11.03.2020
Når CROI går i fisk - med transmissioner fra CROI 2020
10.03.2020 - 11.03.2020
World TB day 2020
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Yield, Efficiency and Costs of Mass Screening Algorithms for Tuberculosis in Brazilian Prisons
17.02.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Detecting Tuberculosis in Prisons: Switching Off the Disease at its Source
17.02.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Effect of diabetes mellitus on short-term prognosis of 227 pyogenic liver abscess patients after hospitalization
17.02.2020Latest Results for BMC Infectious Diseases
Terlipressin Increases Systemic and Lowers Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Experimental Acute Pulmonary Embolism
15.02.2020Critical Care Medicine - Online First
Sustained reduction in third-generation cephalosporin usage in adult inpatients following introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship program in a large urban hospital in Malawi
15.02.2020Clinical Infectious Diseases Advance Access
Hvad tænker Professor Jens Lundgren om"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Troels Lillebæk artiklen"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvad mener Professor Lars Østergaard om artiklen"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad mener Professor Thomas Benfield om artiklen"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvad synes Professor Niels Obel om"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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