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Patel A, Verma A.
COVID-19angiotensin converting enzyme 2angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitorsangiotensin receptor blockershypertension
Bullard J, Dust K, Funk D, et al.
AbstractBackgroundRT-PCR has become the primary method to diagnose viral diseases, including SARS-CoV-2. RT-PCR detects RNA, not infectious virus, thus its ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited. Infectivity is a critical determinant in informing public health guidelines/interventions. Our goal was to determine the relationship between E gene SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values from respiratory samples, symptom onset to test (STT) and infectivity in cell culture.MethodsIn this retrospective cross-sectional study, we took SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed positive samples and determined their ability to infect Vero cell lines.ResultsNinety RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 positive samples were incubated on Vero cells. Twenty-six samples (28.9%) demonstrated viral growth. Median TCID50/ml was 1780 (282-8511). There was no growth in samples with a Ct > 24 or STT > 8 days. Multivariate logistic regression using positive viral culture as a binary predictor variable, STT and Ct demonstrated an odds ratio for positive viral culture of 0.64 (95% CI 0.49-0.84, p24 and duration of symptoms >8 days may be low. This information can inform public health policy and guide clinical, infection control and occupational health decisions. Further studies of larger size are needed.
Wang Y, Tong J, Qin Y, et al.
AbstractBACKGROUNDSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, resulting in the coronavirus disease COVID-19) is highly transmissible among people. Asymptomatic infections are also an important source of infection. Here, we aimed to further clarify the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections.METHODSWe identified close contacts of confirmed COVID-19 cases in northeast Chongqing who were RT-PCR+ yet remained asymptomatic throughout their infections. We stratified this cohort by normal versus abnormal findings on chest CT, and compared the strata regarding comorbidities, demographics, laboratory findings, viral transmission and other factors.RESULTSBetween January and March, 2020, we identified and hospitalized 279 RT-PCR+ contacts of COVID-19 patients. Of these, 63 (23%) remained asymptomatic until discharge; 29 had abnormal and 34 had normal chest CT findings. The mean cohort age was 39.3 years, and 87.3% had no comorbidities. Mean time to diagnosis after close contact with a COVID-19 index patient was 16.0 days (range 1 to 29), and 13.4 days and 18.7 days for those with abnormal and normal CT findings, respectively (p < 0.05). Nine subjects (14.3%) transmitted the virus to others; 4 and 5 were in the abnormal and normal CT strata, respectively. The median length of nucleic acid turning negative in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients was 13 days, compared to 10.4 days in those with normal chest CT (p < 0.05).CONCLUSIONSA portion of these asymptomatic individuals, with and without abnormal chest CT scans, were capable of transmitting the virus to others. Given the frequency and potential infectiousness of asymptomatic infections, testing of traced contacts is essential. Studies of the impact of treatment on asymptomatic RT-PCR+ individuals on disease progression and transmission should be undertaken.
Jung S, Choi J, You S, et al.
AbstractBackgroundRenin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors may facilitate host cell entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or attenuate organ injury via RAAS blockade. We aimed to assess the associations between prior use of RAAS inhibitors and clinical outcomes among Korean patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).MethodsWe performed a nationwide population-based cohort study using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment database. Claim records were screened for 66793 individuals who were tested for COVID-19 until April 8, 2020. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to compare the clinical outcomes between RAAS inhibitor users and nonusers.ResultsAmong 5179 confirmed COVID-19 cases, 762 patients were RAAS inhibitor users and 4417 patients were nonusers. Relative to nonusers, RAAS inhibitor users were more likely to be older, male, and have comorbidities. Among 1954 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 377 patients were RAAS inhibitor users and 1577 patients were nonusers. In-hospital mortality was observed for 33 RAAS inhibitor users (9%) and 51 nonusers (3%) (p
Vineet D. Menachery, Boyd L. Yount Jr, Kari Debbink, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Lisa E. Gralinski, Jessica A. Plante, Rachel L. Graham, Trevor Scobey, Xing-Yi Ge, Eric F. Donaldson, Scott H. Randell, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Wayne A. Marasco, Zhengli-Li Shi, Ralph S. Baric
Nature Medicine, Published online: 22 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0924-2Author Correction: A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence
Mahasin Al Shakirchi, Lena Klingspor, Peter Bergman, Lena Hjelte, Isabelle de Monestrol
Progressive lung disease is still the main cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients (O'Sullivan and Freedman, 2009). In the CF lung, viscous secretions, impaired mucociliary clearance and insufficient local immune responses result in bacterial and fungal colonization, and subsequent chronic inflammation (TS, 2012).
Boris I. Pavlin, Andrew Hall, Jan Hajek, Muhammad Ali Raja, Vikas Sharma, Otim Patrick Ramadan, Sharmistha Mishra, Audrey Rangel, Aileen Kitching, Katrina Roper, Tim O’Dempsey, Judith Starkulla, Amy Elizabeth Parry, Rashida Kamara, Alie H. Wurie
Between December 2013 and June 2016, West Africa experienced the largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history, with at least 28,646 cases and 11,323 deaths.(WHO, 2019) Prior to this outbreak, the small number (2,345) of cumulative cases of EVD meant that relatively little was known about the clinical course of EVD,(CDC, 2019) especially in pregnant women. Few reports describe the clinical outcomes in pregnant women infected with EVD, and their newborns.(Piot et al., 1978; World Health and Organization, 1978; Bwaka et al., 1999; Mupapa et al., 1999; Caluwaerts et al., 2016; Baize et al., 2014; Caluwaerts, 2017; Caluwaerts et al., 2018; Chiu et al., 2018; Henwood et al., 2017; Lyman et al., 2018; Mpofu et al., 2019; Nelson et al., 2016; Oduyebo et al., 2015; UNFPA, 2020) Previous reports largely described pregnant women with EVD who presented with typical symptoms, spontaneous abortion,(World Health and Organization, 1978; Bwaka et al., 1999; Mupapa et al., 1999; Baize et al., 2014; Henwood et al., 2017; Lyman et al., 2018; Mpofu et al., 2019; Baggi et al., 2014; Chertow et al., 2014; Schieffelin et al., 2014) pregnancy-related hemorrhage,(Mupapa et al., 1999; Caluwaerts et al., 2016; Caluwaerts, 2017; Henwood et al., 2017; Lyman et al., 2018; Mpofu et al., 2019; Schieffelin et al., 2014) and stillbirth.(Mupapa et al., 1999; Caluwaerts et al., 2016; Henwood et al., 2017; Lyman et al., 2018; Mpofu et al., 2019; Oduyebo et al., 2015; Baggi et al., 2014) While mortality has historically been very high among pregnant women with EVD (averaging 86% in a review by Bebell et al.
Jing Ni, Xi Wang, Ana Stojanovic, Qin Zhang, Marian Wincher, Lea Bühler, Annette Arnold, Margareta P. Correia, Manuel Winkler, Philipp-Sebastian Koch, Veronika Sexl, Thomas Höfer, Adelheid Cerwenka
Ni et al. define the transcriptional landscape of tumor-infiltrating NK cells using single-cell RNA sequencing. They find that the transcription factor HIF-1α suppresses IL-18-driven NF-κB signaling and anti-tumor activity of tumor-infiltrating NK cells. Extended inhibition of HIF-1α in mouse or human NK cells unleashes potent NK cell effector function.
Marta Colaneri, Elena Seminari, Stefano Novati, Erika Asperges, Simona Biscarini, Antonio Piralla, Elena Percivalle, Irene Cassaniti, Fausto Baldanti, Raffaele Bruno, Mario U. Mondelli, the COVID19 IRCCS San Matteo Pavia Task Force, ID Staff, ID Residents, Emergency Care Unit: ECU Staff, ECU Residents, Intensive Care Unit, Paediatric Unit, Virology Staff, Virology Technical staff, Virology Residents, Research Laboratories, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Pharmacy Unit, Hospital Management, D
To detect possible SARS-CoV-2 RNA contamination of inanimate surfaces in areas at high risk of aerosol formation by patients with COVID-19.
Theo J M Verheij, Tamara N Platteel
In their interesting systemic review, in The Lancet infectious Diseases, Kyung Kim Do and colleagues1 assessed the current evidence on comparisons between the effects of antibiotic regimens of different length on both clinical and microbiologic outcomes in adult women with uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Their results suggest that shorter antibiotic regimens than are advocated in the joint Infectious Diseases Society of America and European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and the European Association of Urology guidelines would have equal beneficial effects.
Do Kyung Kim, Jae Heon Kim, Joo Yong Lee, Nam Su Ku, Hye Sun Lee, Ju-Young Park, Jong Won Kim, Kwang Joon Kim, Kang Su Cho
Treatment duration of the third-generation and fourth-generation quinolones and pivmecillinam could be shorter than the currently recommended regimens for acute uncomplicated cystitis. For other antibiotics, shorter duration of regimens could be considered, but further research is needed because of the low quality of supporting evidence.
The COVID-19 pandemic has vividly highlighted how much society depends upon essential workers. Praise for the heroic work being done by health-care workers to save lives worldwide in dangerous, exhausting conditions is everywhere. But those same workers are often left unprotected by governments and systems that have failed to supply them with enough personal protective equipment (PPE), supplies, and resources to do their jobs. In April alone, there were an estimated 27 COVID-19-related health worker deaths in the USA, 106 in the UK, and 180 in Russia, with tens of thousands of infections.
Angus W Thomson, Amit D Tevar
On the basis of promising animal studies and following the translational path of immune cell therapy in oncology,1 the field of organ transplantation has begun preliminary investigations of infusing regulatory immune cells into graft recipients. These early trials aim to reduce patients' immunosuppressive drug burden and promote drug-free transplant tolerance. The ONE Study was established in 2011 as a multicentre collaborative effort (centres in France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the USA) to compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of regulatory cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) when combined with reduced immunosuppressive treatment in low-risk, living-donor kidney recipients.
It was a tragedy for anyone hoping to see COVID-19 become a catalyst for international solidarity. On the first day of the first-ever virtual World Health Assembly, held during the worst acute global health crisis since WHO's creation in 1948, Alex Azar, US Secretary of Health and Human Services, further damaged the credibility of the US Government as a constructive member of the international community. “We must be frank”, he began. What followed was an astonishing series of unsubstantiated allegations.
President López Obrador later apologised after his comments were denounced by Mexican medical associations amid the COVID-19 pandemic. David Agren reports from Mexico City.
PPE shortages, lack of testing, and a vulnerable population have seen care homes in England and Wales become hotspots of the COVID-19 epidemic. Talha Burki reports.
As Associate Professor in Health Systems at Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health at the National University of Singapore, Helena Legido-Quigley was able to observe at first-hand how the country responded to its first COVID-19 outbreak earlier this year. “It was striking how well Singapore was prepared, a legacy from the SARS era, with a dedicated infectious diseases hospital and 6 months of supplies of personal protective equipment and ventilators. The public health response was fast and efficient with good governance and effective health-risk communication”, she says.
Among the disturbing statistics to have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic has been the disproportionate impact in terms of death and severe illness on ethnic minorities in the UK and the USA. On April 7, 2020, it was reported that in the US city of Chicago, where the black population is roughly 30%, nearly 70% of COVID-19 deaths were in this demographic. A report released by the UK Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre on April 17, 2020, showed that 34% of patients in the UK receiving advanced respiratory support were non-white, despite the non-white population nationally being about 14%.
Physicist turned ecologist and UK Chief Scientific Adviser. He was born in Sydney, NSW, Australia, on Jan 8, 1936, and died of pneumonia in Oxford, UK, on April 28, 2020, aged 84 years.
Birgit Sawitzki, Paul N Harden, Petra Reinke, Aurélie Moreau, James A Hutchinson, David S Game, Qizhi Tang, Eva C Guinan, Manuela Battaglia, William J Burlingham, Ian S D Roberts, Mathias Streitz, Régis Josien, Carsten A Böger, Cristiano Scottà, James F Markmann, Joanna L Hester, Karsten Juerchott, Cecile Braudeau, Ben James, Laura Contreras-Ruiz, Jeroen B van der Net, Tobias Bergler, Rossana Caldara, William Petchey, Matthias Edinger, Nathalie Dupas, Michael Kapinsky, Ingrid Mutzbauer, Natalie M Otto, Robe
Regulatory cell therapy is achievable and safe in living-donor kidney transplant recipients, and is associated with fewer infectious complications, but similar rejection rates in the first year. Therefore, immune cell therapy is a potentially useful therapeutic approach in recipients of kidney transplant to minimise the burden of general immunosuppression.
Timothy Riddles, Nivene Saad, Helen Benham
A 43-year-old Australian-born, white man was referred to our unit because of increasing pain in both his ankles. The pain had developed approximately 7 days earlier. 3 days before the pain started, he had been admitted to hospital with cellulitis of his upper arm; he had been treated for septicaemia and acute kidney injury caused by an infection with Streptococcus pyogenes.
Kjell Tullus, Nader Shaikh
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children are among the most common bacterial infections in childhood. They are equally common in boys and girls during the first year of life and become more common in girls after the first year of life. Dividing UTIs into three categories; febrile upper UTI (acute pyelonephritis), lower UTI (cystitis), and asymptomatic bacteriuria, is useful for numerous reasons, mainly because it helps to understand the pathophysiology of the infection. A single episode of febrile UTI is often caused by a virulent Escherichia coli strain, whereas recurrent infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria commonly result from urinary tract malformations or bladder disturbances.
Joseph Baruch Baluku,
Journal of Medical Virology, Accepted Article.
Kamal Kant Sahu,
Ahmad Daniyal Siddiqui,
Jonathan M. Gerber
Jordi A. Matias‐Guiu
Bryce D. Beutler,
Mark S. Riddle,
Steven R. Brenner
Steven R. Post,
S Lo Caputo,
Haushofer, J., Metcalf, C. J. E.
We can exploit randomized controlled trials, compartmental models, and spillovers.
Pleiner, T., Pinton Tomaleri, G., Januszyk, K., Inglis, A. J., Hazu, M., Voorhees, R. M.
A defining step in the biogenesis of a membrane protein is the insertion of its hydrophobic transmembrane helices into the lipid bilayer. The nine-subunit ER membrane protein complex (EMC) is a conserved co- and post-translational insertase at the endoplasmic reticulum. We determined the structure of the human EMC in a lipid nanodisc to an overall resolution of 3.4 Å by cryo-electron microscopy, permitting building of a nearly complete atomic model. We used structure-guided mutagenesis to demonstrate that substrate insertion requires a methionine-rich cytosolic loop and occurs via an enclosed hydrophilic vestibule within the membrane formed by the subunits EMC3 and EMC6. We propose that the EMC uses local membrane thinning and a positively charged patch to decrease the energetic barrier for insertion into the bilayer.
Shi, L., Bucknall, M. P., Young, T. L., Zhang, M., Hu, L., Bing, J., Lee, D. S., Kim, J., Wu, T., Takamure, N., McKenzie, D. R., Huang, S., Green, M. A., Ho-Baillie, A. W. Y.
Although perovskite solar cells (PSC’s) have produced remarkable energy conversion efficiencies, their underperforming durability is the key challenge for the technology to be commercially viable. In this work, for the first time, we use gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to reveal signature volatile products of the decomposition of organic hybrid perovskites under thermal stress. In addition, we are able to use GC-MS to confirm that a low-cost polymer/glass stack pressure-tight encapsulation is effective in supressing such outgassing. Using such encapsulation scheme, CH3NH3 (MA) containing multi-cation multi-halide perovskite solar cells survived more than 1800 hours of Damp Heat test and 75 cycles of Humidity Freeze test exceeding the requirement of IEC61215:2016 standard for the first time.
Desdin-Mico, G., Soto-Heredero, G., Aranda, J. F., Oller, J., Carrasco, E., Gabande-Rodriguez, E., Blanco, E. M., Alfranca, A., Cusso, L., Desco, M., Ibanez, B., Gortazar, A. R., Fernandez-Marcos, P., Navarro, M. N., Hernaez, B., Alcami, A., Baixauli, F., Mittelbrunn, M.
The impact of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. Here, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria due to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as accelerators of senescence. In mice, these cells instigate multiple aging-related features, including metabolic, cognitive, physical, and cardiovascular alterations, which together result in premature death. T cell metabolic failure induces the accumulation of circulating cytokines, which resembles chronic inflammation characteristic of aging ("inflammaging"). This cytokine storm itself acts as a systemic inducer of senescence. Blocking TNF-α signaling or preventing senescence with NAD+ precursors partially rescues premature aging in mice with Tfam-deficient T cells. Thus, T cells can regulate organismal fitness and lifespan, highlighting the importance of tight immunometabolic control in both aging and the onset of age-associated diseases.
Northern European Conference on Travel Medicine (NECTM) 2020
Mødet udskudt på grund af COVID-19
3.06.2020 - 5.06.2020
ASM Microbe 2020
Aflyst på grund af COVID-19
18.06.2020 - 22.06.2020
Ph.d. forsvar ved Kristina Langholz Kristensen
International AIDS Conference (AIDS) 2020
6.07.2020 - 10.07.2020
International Liver Congress (ILC) 2020
27.08.2020 - 29.08.2020
COVID-19 retningslinje (2020)
National handlingsplan for antibiotika til mennesker (2017)
Retningslinjer til sundhedsprofessionelle vedr. håndtering af infektion med zikavirus (2019)
Antiviral behandling af hiv smittede personer (2019)
Ratio, rate, or risk?
28.05.2020The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2
27.05.2020Science Express TOC RSS Feed
Device-Associated Menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome [Reviews]
27.05.2020CMR Current Issue
Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Its Impact in Neurological Disease [Reviews]
27.05.2020CMR Current Issue
Evaluation of World Health Organization–Recommended Hand Hygiene Formulations
27.05.2020Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
Hvad synes Professor Jens Lundgren om"Dolutegravir plus Two Different Prodrugs of Tenofovir to Treat HIV."?
Hvorfor anbefaler Professor Troels Lillebæk artiklen"The global prevalence of latent tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis."?
Hvorfor synes Professor Lars Østergaard, at du bør læse"Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial."?
Hvad synes Professor Thomas Benfield om"Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection."?
Hvad tænker Professor Niels Obel om"Early, Goal-Directed Therapy for Septic Shock - A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis."?
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